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2-Furaldehyde ( CASNO:98-01-1 )
Identification and Related Records
- CAS Registry number:
- 2-Formyl furan
artificial ant oil
artificial oil of ants
- Molecular Formula:
- Molecular Weight:
Chemical and Physical Properties
- colourless to reddish-brown oily liquid with almond odour
- Melting Point:
- Boiling Point:
- Refractive Index:
- Flash Point:
- 8.3 g/100 mL
- 8.3 g/100 mL
- very deep brown
- Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and strong acids. Flammable.
- Storage temp:
- Spectral properties:
- Index of refraction = 1.5261 at 20 deg C/D
Sadtler Reference Number: 113 (IR, Prism); 35 (IR, Grating); max absorption (sulfuric acid): 280 nm (log E = 3.07) (initial)
2-Furaldehyde, 99%, exhibits its two strongest infra red absorption bands at wavelengths of 6.0 and 13.3 microns.
MASS: 68584 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral Database 1990 version)
IR: 6172 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 42 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
1H NMR: 95 (Varian Associates NMR Spectra Catalogue)
- Computed Properties:
- Molecular Weight:96.08406 [g/mol]
Rotatable Bond Count:1
Topological Polar Surface Area:30.2
Heavy Atom Count:7
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:2
Feature 3D Ring Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:1
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:2
Safety and Handling
- Hazard Codes:
- Risk Statements:
- Safety Statements:
- Hazard Note:
- Confirmed carcinogen. Poison by ingestion, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intramuscular routes. Moderately toxic by inhalation and skin contact. Human mutation data reported. A skin and eye irritant. Mutation data reported. The liquid is dangerous to the eyes. The vapor is irritating to mucous membranes and is a central nervous system poison. However, its low volatility reduces its toxicity effect. Ingestion of furfural has produced cirrhosis of the liver in rats. In industry there is a tendency to minimize the danger of acute effects resulting from exposure to it. This is particularly true because of its low volatility.
Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame or by chemical reaction. An exothermic polymerization of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalies. Keep away from heat and open flames. Mixture with sodium hydrogen carbonate ignites spontaneously. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Hazard Codes: XiT
Risk Statements: 21-23/25-36/37-40
R21: Harmful in contact with skin
R23/25: Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R36/37: Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
R40: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
Safety Statements: 26-36/37/39-45-1/2
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
S36/37/39: Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
S1/2: Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
RIDADR: UN 1199 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany: 2
F 1: Sensitive to air and humidity
F 8: Photosensitive
F 9: Keep under nitrogen
F 10: Keep under argon
Hazard Note: Irritant
Contact with furfural irritates the skin and respiratory tract and can cause the lungs to fill with fluid.When ingested or inhaled, furfural can cause intoxication, including euphoria, nausea, headache, dizziness, and eventual unconsciousness and death due to respiratory failure.
Chronic skin exposure can lead to a skin allergy to the substance, as well as an unusual susceptibility to sunburn.
- Air Sensitive
- Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations:
- Vapor may irritate eyes & respiratory system. Liquid irritates skin ...
Furfural is a skin, eye, and mucous membrane irritant. Although the vapor is a potent irritant, the liquid has a relatively low volatility so that inhalation of significant quantities by workers in unlikely. Exposure of workers to air concentrations of from 2-14 ppm cause complaints of eye and throat irritation and headache. The liquid is irritating to the skin, and contact can cause dermatitis.
- Cleanup Methods:
- 1. Remove all ignition sources. 2. Ventilate area of spill or leak. 3. For small quantities, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in a safe place ... Allow sufficient time for evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork. Burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials. For large quantities, cover with sodium bisulfite, add a small amt of water & mix. ... After 1 hr, flush with large amt of water & wash site with soap solution.
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder. Add sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3).
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom. Inject "universal" gelling agent to solidify encircled spill and increase effectiveness of booms. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Combustion products include corrosive or toxic vapors.
Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors and protect personnel. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
- UN 1199
- Fire Fighting Procedures:
- Use water spray, dry chemical, "alcohol resistant" form, or carbon dioxide. use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
- Fire Potential:
- Flammability of furfural is comparable to that of kerosene or No 1 fuel oil.
- GRADE: Technical, refined.
Natural, synthetic, industrial, 98% grades
- DOT Emergency Guidelines:
- /GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire or Explosion: Flammable/combustible materials. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire: Some of these materials may react violently with water. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Do not get water inside containers. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers ... . Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
- Exposure Standards and Regulations:
- Furfural is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
- Reactivities and Incompatibilities:
- ...Can react with oxidizing materials.
An exothermic polymerization of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalies.
Strong acids, oxidizers, strong alkalis [Note: May polymerize on contact with strong acids or strong alkalis].
Several cases of spontaneous ignition after exposure to air of fine coke particles removed from filter strainers on a petroleum refinery furfural extraction unit have been noted. This has been associated with the use of sodium hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) injected into the plant for pH control, which produced a pH of 10.5 locally. This would tend to resinify the aldehyde, but there is also the possibility of a Cannizzaro reaction causing conversion of the aldehyde to furfuryl alcohol and furoic acid. The latter, together with other acidic products of autoxidation of the aldehyde, would tend to resinify the furfuryl alcohol. Pyrolysis GLC showed the presence of a significant proportion of furfuryl alcohol-derived resins in the coke. The latter is now discarded into drums of water, immediately after discharge from the strainers, to prevent further incidents.
In a variation of the usual reaction condition for oxidizing furfuraldehyde to 2-furoic acid with hypochlorite, the aldehyde was added dropwise to a 10% excess fo commercial sodium hypochlorite solution at 20-25 deg C, but without the inclusion of additional sodium hydroxide. When aldehyde addition was almost complete, a violent explosion occurred. Subsequent investigation showed that the pH of the reaction mixture fell progressively with addition of aldehyde, and at pH 8.5 the reaction mixture erupted violently, the temperature increased by 70 deg C and the pH fell to 2 ...
/Furfural/ attacks many plastics.
- Other Preventative Measures:
- SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
During the handling or processing of furfural, exhaust ventilation & general ventilation should be provided to keep the atmospheric concn below recommended levels. ... Measures to prevent inhalation hazards will normally be sufficient to prevent the formation of explosive mixtures; the products should be confined as much as practicable, especially when heated, to prevent the escape of vapor, and sources of ignition should be eliminated.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Use water spray to disperse vapors and dilute vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid.
If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (formerly Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) or by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation.
Clothing contaminated with liquid furfural should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of furfural from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or otherwise cleaned to remove the furfural, the person performing the operation should be informed of furfural's hazardous properties. Nonimpervious clothing which becomes contaminated with liquid furfural should be removed immediately and not reworn until the furfural is removed from the clothing.
Employees who handle liquid furfural should wash their hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
Keep away from heat and open flame.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
- Protective Equipment and Clothing:
- Persons required to handle furfural ... should wear personal protective equipment to avoid skin contact, including eye & face protection & hand protection. Where brief exposure to high atmospheric concn is possible workers should wear respiratory protective equipment.
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face-shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possibility of skin contact with furfural. Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof goggles where there is any possibility of liquid furfural contacting the eyes.
Breakthrough times greater than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for butyl rubber (butyl) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Some data suggesting breakthrough times of approximately an hour or more for natural rubber (Nat.rub) and neoprene (neop). Breakthrough times less (usually significantly less) than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for nitrile rubber (nitrile). No data for neoprene istyrene-butadiene rubber (Neop/SBR), nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (nitrile/PVC), polyurethane (PU), viton, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), and polyethylene (PE).
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Respirator Recommendations : Up to 100 ppm: (Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s)./(Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s). Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations : Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations : Up to 50 ppm: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s). Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
Respirator Recommendations : Escape: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister/Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
- Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:
- log Kow= 0.41
- NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage); Clear Evidence: mouse NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NTP-TR-382,90, . , Some Evidence: rat NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NTP-TR-382 ,1990. . EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.
- Disposal Methods:
- [40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/2005)] Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U125, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U125, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Furfural is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. /From table/
Group I Containers: Combustible containers from organic or metallo-organic pesticides (except organic mercury, lead, cadmium, or arsenic compounds) should be disposed of in pesticide incinerators or in specified landfill sites. /Organic or metallo-organic pesticides/
Group II Containers: Non-combustible containers from organic or metallo-organic pesticides (except organic mercury, lead, cadmium, or arsenic compounds) must first be triple-rinsed. Containers that are in good condition may be returned to the manufacturer or formulator of the pesticide product, or to a drum reconditioner for reuse with the same type of pesticide product, if such reuse is legal under Department of Transportation regulations (eg 49 CFR 173.28). Containers that are not to be reused should be punctured ... and transported to a scrap metal facility for recycling, disposal or burial in a designated landfill. /Organic or metallo-organic pesticides/
Adsorption & landfill: Furfural may be disposed of: For small quantities, by adsorbing it in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material and disposing it in a suitable combustion chamber. For large quantities, by mixing with a flammable liquid (such as acetone) and atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber. Recommendable method: Incineration. Not recommendable method: Evaporation.
Use and Manufacturing
- Use and Manufacturing:
- Methods of Manufacturing
Furfural is produced from annually renewable agricultural sources /containing pentosans/ such as ... corncobs, cottonseed hulls ... rice hulls ... bagasse ... wood and wood products ... in batch or continuous digestors where the pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses and the pentoses subsequently cyclodehydrated to furfural. In all processes, raw material is charged to the digestor and treated with strong inorganic acid. High pressure steam is introduced through the mass and, after attaining operating temperature and pressure, furfural is steam distilled.
May be prepared from pyridineU.S. Exports
(1983) 9.08X10+9 gU.S. Imports
(1984) 7.26X10+9 g
(1986) 8.17X10+6 lbU.S. Production
This chemical is listed as a High Production Volume (HPV) (65FR81686). Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U.S. in >1 million pounds in 1990 and/or 1994. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule. (IUR) (40 CFR part 710 subpart B; 51FR21438).
(1983) 5.22X10+10 g
(1986) >100 million-500 million pounds
(1990) >50 million-100 million pounds
(1994) >50 million-100 million pounds
(1998) >100 million-500 million pounds
(2002) >10 million-50 million poundsConsumption Patterns
39% EXPORTED; 3% FOR FURFURYL ALCOHOL; 16% FOR SOLVENT USAGE (INCLUDING 8% FOR LUBRICATING OILS AND 7% FOR BUTADIENE); 9% FOR SYNTHESIS OF TETRAHYDROFURAN; 3% FOR MISC APPLICATIONS (1974)
48% FURFURYL ALCOHOL; 19% LUBE OIL REFINING; 19% TETRAHYDROFURAN; 5% BUTADIENE EXTRACTION; 9% OTHER (1983)
- Sampling Procedures:
- NIOSH 2529: Analyte: oxazolidine derivative of furfural; Matrix: air; Sampler: solid sorbent tube (10% 2-hydroxymethyl)piperidine on XAD-2, 120 mg/60 mg); Flow rate: 0.01 to 0.05 l/min; Vol: min 1 l @ 5 ppm, max 12 l; Sample stability: at least 2 wk @ 25 deg C
NIOSH S17: ANALYTE: FURFURAL-GIRARD T DERIVATIVE; MATRIX: AIR; PROCEDURE: BUBBLER COLLECTION
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
- Biomedical Effects and Toxicity:
- Analysis of expired air of volunteers exposed to vapor showed after termination of exposure very small proportion (less than 1%) of retained furfural is eliminated by lungs. It is metabolized very rapidly. Half-life is about 2 to 2.5 hours. No free furoic acid found. This compound enters the body also percutaneously. At 15 minutes contamination of 1 hand (up to the wrist), approximately the same amount of furfural is absorbed as would be retained at an 8 hour (or 4 hour) inspiration of air in concentration equaling maximum allowable concentration. [Flek J, Sedivec V; Int Arch Occup Environ Health 41 (3): 159-68 (1978)] PubMed Abstract
The liver is the primary target for furfural toxicity in rats and mice.
Furfural is well absorbed after administration by any route. In rats, 85% of C14-furfural administered by gavage in corn oil was recovered in urine within 72 hours. ... After oral administration, furfural is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed to the tissues, principally the liver and kidney.
The comparative metabolism and disposition of furfural (FAL) and furfuryl alcohol (FOL) /in male Fisher 344 rats/ were investigated following oral administration of approximately 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 of the LD50, corresponding to approximately 0.127, 1.15, and 12.5 mg/kg for FAL and 0.275, 2.75, and 27.5 mg/kg for FOL. At all doses studied, at least 86-89% of the dose of FAL or FOL was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. FAL and FOL were extensively metabolized prior to excretion. The major route of excretion was in urine, where 83-88% of the dose was excreted, whereas 2-4% was excreted in the feces. Approximately 7% of the dose from rats treated with FAL at 12.5 mg/kg was exhaled as 14CO2. At 72 hr following administration, the pattern of tissue distribution of radioactivity was similar for both FAL and FOL. Liver and kidney contained the highest, and brain the lowest concentrations of radioactivity. Generally, the concentrations of radioactivity in tissues were proportional to the dose. Almost all of the urinary radioactivity was tentatively identified. No FAL or FOL was detected in urine. [Nomeir AA et al; Drug Metab Dispos 20 (2): 198-204 (1992)] PubMed Abstract
The fate of furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) was investigated in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats given single oral doses of 1, 10 and 60 mg/kg and male and female CD1 mice given 1, 20 and 200 mg/kg [carbonyl-14C]furfural. There was a very high recovery (more than 90% of dose) of radioactivity in all dose groups in 72 hr. The major route of elimination was by the urine, with much smaller amounts present in the faeces and exhaled as 14CO2. The residue in the carcass after 72 hr was less than 1% of the administered dose. [Parkash MK, Caldwell J; Food Chem Toxicol 32 (10): 887-95 (1994)] PubMed Abstract
Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential
- Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:
- TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 40(SRC), determined from a log Kow of 0.41(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that furfural is expected to have very high mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of furfural from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process(SRC) given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 3.8X10-6 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 2.21 mm Hg(4), and water solubility, 7.41X10+4 mg/L(5). Furfural is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon its vapor pressure(4). Furfural was shown to support the aerobic growth of organisms obtained from soil and grown on phenol(6) and 97% degradation was observed from 0.25-32 days at different furfural concentrations in a forest soil and municipal sewage mixture under anaerobic conditions(7). This suggests that furfural is susceptible to microbial degradation in soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 40(SRC), determined from a log Kow of 0.41(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that furfural is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is expected(3) based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 3.8X10-6 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 2.21 mm Hg(4), and water solubility, 7.41X10+4 mg/L(5). Using this Henry's Law constant and an estimation method(3), volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 9.6 and 73 days, respectively(SRC). According to a classification scheme(6), an estimated BCF of 3.2(SRC), from its log Kow(2) and a regression-derived equation(7), suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Furfural is expected to undergo biodegradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the aquatic environment with complete degradation occuring within 3-12 days(8) and 30 days(9), respectively. Also, furfural, present at 100 mg/L, reached 93.5% of its theoretical BOD in 2 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L and the Japanese MITI test(10).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), furfural, which has a vapor pressure of 2.21 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase furfural is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 5.5 hours(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 3.51X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 27 deg C(3). Furfural contains chromophores that absorb at wavelengths >290 nm and therefore may be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight(4). The gas-phase concentration of furfural, present as a component of the smoke obtained from burning oak in a wood stove, was found to decrease when irradiated in an experimental chamber equipped both with sun lights and UV lights(5).
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- profile: Hongze Nuoya Chemical Plant produce medicine, pesticide and intermediate. Our products includes bispyribac sodium, 2-methylthio-4,6-pyrimidinedione, 4,6-dichloro-2-(methylthio)pyrimidine, 4,6-dimethoxy-2-methylthiopyrimidine, 2-methylsulfonyl-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine, 2-Amino-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine, 2-Amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine, 2-Amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine, 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine and 2-Amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine. We provide testing and inspection services.
- Best Chemical Company:
- profile: Best Chemical Company produces lithium metal in catalyst & battery grades, Lithium chloride, lithium cobaltite, lithium perchlorate and lithium carbonate. Our lithium metal is principally accustomed to make lithium batteries, light alloy of lithium & aluminium and synthetic rubber. Our Lithium chloride, anhydrous is really a raw material for all of lithium metal and utilized as welding flux for aluminium and demoisturizing agent for air-condition.
- shandong duanxintang dayu pharmaceutical co.,ltd:
- Founded in 1990, Shandong Lukang Dayu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. covers an area of 100 mu and includes a total staff of 358 people, 82 which are senior specialists and the personnel with college or over education occupy 85%. Like a modern pharmaceutical enterprise integrating medicine preparation, production and sales, we have independent export in move and is the first one to pass the authentication from the national medicine GMP in 2001. We have modern raw material drug and Traditional chinese medicine extraction and preparation training courses, able to creating types of formulation items. The annual production capacity of primary items: Refined rutins of 450 tons, troxerutins (Injection) of 90 tons, troxerutins (Dental) of 450 tons, granular formulations of 120 million bags and capsules
- Foshan Carro Electrical.,Ltd:
- Foshan Carro Electrical Co., Ltd. was located in the world famous manufacturing center of household appliances - Shunde City,Website:http://www.carrofan.com, Guangdong Province. As one of the most professional and responsible suppliers in China, we provide qualified energy-saving products and solar applications solutions for you. We sincerely welcome customers to establish long-term cooperation with us. We specialize in rechargeable fan, solar fan, AC/DC Fan, solar LED Lamps and solar home system for over 6years. Our products can be directly used with solar system, no need to use inverter. You can also use the solar panels or battery to operate our products directly. They are widely used in the travel set out, camping, emergency for power outage, temporary job, school dor
- Xiamen Harvest Living Import&Export C0.,Ltd:
- Xiamen Harvest Living Import&Export C0.,Ltd is an innovative watch company located in Southeast China. Since 2000. Xiamen Harvest Living Import&Export C0.,Website:http://www.watches-suppliers.com,Ltd. has been developing, designing, producing and exporting kinds of watch in watch market sector. Currently we specialize in manufacturing numerous models of high quality Silicone Watches, ceramic Watches, stainless steel Watches,wooden watch,alloy watch,sport watch ,carbon fiber watch, etc. Taking advantage of Xiamen Harvest Living Import&Export C0.,Ltd’s strong R&D team to handle your ODM and OEM projects, we can easily transform your ideas into successful promotional and gift products. Let us be your sourcing agent for new product ideas, help create innovative designs, implement our manufac
- Tirion chemical Co.,ltd.:
- In Asia Off-shore the strong interest in Tirion chemical Co.,Ltd.’s items and its condition-of-the-art facilities truly give the organization a worldwide platform for that manufacture and marketing of their classified items business. Ⅰ Ⅰ Ⅰ Ⅰ Tirion chemical Co.,Ltd. wants its sales for classified chemicals to develop by greater than US$1 billion in China and throughout Southeast Asia within the next 2 yrs. But through the Company’s rise to prominence within the global chemical industry it's stored firmly in position the main values which Jon Tirion chemical Co.,Ltd. founded the organization. Its Asia Off-shore procedures aren't any different.Ⅰ Ⅰ Ⅰ