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Acetic acid ( CASNO:64-19-7 )
Identification and Related Records
- Acetic acid
- CAS Registry number:
- Glacial acetic acid
Acetic acid solution
acetic acid 50%
acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent, by weight, of acetic acid
Acetic Acid Glacial BP
Natural Acetic Acid
Acetic acid (36%)
Acetic acid,food grade
Acetic Acid Glacial
Acetic Acid, Glacial
- Molecular Formula:
- Molecular Weight:
- Canonical SMILES:
Chemical and Physical Properties
- clear liquid
- Melting Point:
- Boiling Point:
- Refractive Index:
- Flash Point:
- Miscible with water
- Clear, colorless liquid
Colorless liquid or crystals (Note: Pure compound is a solid below 62 degrees F). Often used in an aqueous solution).
- Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
- HS Code:
- Storage temp:
- Store at RT.
- Spectral properties:
- MAX ABSORPTION (ALCOHOL): 208 NM (LOG E= 1.5)
SADTLER REF NUMBER: 76 (IR, PRISM; V8 (NMR))
Index of refraction: 1.3720 @ deg C/D
IR: 4819 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 4-3 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
RAMAN: 407 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 34542 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral Database 1990 version)
1H NMR: 8 (Varian Associates NMR spectra collection)
13C NMR: 7 (Johnson and Jankowski, Carbon-13 NMR Spectra, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
Intense mass spectral peaks: 43 m/z, 60 m/z
- Computed Properties:
- Molecular Weight:60.05196 [g/mol]
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Topological Polar Surface Area:37.3
Heavy Atom Count:4
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:2
Feature 3D Anion Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1
Safety and Handling
- Hazard Codes:
- Risk Statements:
- Safety Statements:
- Hazard Codes:C,Xi
Risk Statements: 34-42-35-10-36/38
R42:May cause sensitization by inhalation.
R35:Causes severe burns.
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin.
Safety Statements: 26-36/37/39-45-23-24/25
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
S23:Do not breathe vapour.
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
RIDADR: UN 1792 8/PG 2
WGK Germany: 3
- Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations:
- Severe burns to eyes and skin may occur. Vapors strongly irritating to eyes and respiratory tract.
The vapor of acetic acid is irritating to the eyes and nose, causing lacrimation and hyperemia.
Irritating concn: 25 mg/cu m.
.Eye irritation has been noted at a concentration below 10 ppm.
- Cleanup Methods:
- Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder. Neutralize with caustic soda or soda ash.
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Add dilute caustic soda
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment.
Collect leaking liquid in sealable containers. Cautiously neutralize spilled liquid with sodium carbonate only under the responsibility of an expert. Wash away remainder with plenty of water (extra personal protection: chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus).
Remove all ignition sources, ventilate area of spill or leak. If in liquid form, for small quantities, absorb on paper towels large quantities can be collected & atomized in suitable combustion chamber, or diluted neutralized & flushed into a sewer. If in the solid form, collect in the most safe & convenient manner for reclamation or allow to melt & collect as above.
Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors, protect personnel, and dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures. Use soda ash to neutralize spills. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper. disposal.
- UN 2789
- Fire Fighting Procedures:
- Use water spray, dry chemical, "alcohol" foam, or carbon dioxide. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool.
/When fighting fire/ use self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
If material on fire or involved in fire: Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources. /Corrosive liquid/
- Fire Potential:
- Moderate, when exposed to heat or flame.
- GRADES: USP /United States Pharmacopeia/ (glacial, 99.4 wt % and dilute, 36-37 wt %), cp /chemically pure: a grade designation signifying a minimum of impurities, but not 100% purity/; technical (80; 99.5%); commercial (6, 28, 30, 36, 56, 70, 80 & 99.5%); nf /national formulary/ (diluted; 6.0 g/100 ml).
Reagent grade (glacial)-99.7%, USP grade glacial-99.5%; aq acetic acid-28,36,56,70,80,85 and 90%; lab reagent (aq)-36%
Household vinegar is usually 5% acetic acid.
- DOT Emergency Guidelines:
- /GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire or Explosion: Flammable/combustible materials. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Evacuation: Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire: Some of these materials may react violently with water. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Do not get water inside containers. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Acetic acid, glacial; Acetic acid, solution, more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Acetic acid, solution, more than 10% but not more than 80% acid/
- Exposure Standards and Regulations:
- Acetic acid used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
- Reactivities and Incompatibilities:
- Incompatibilities: carbonates, hydroxides, many oxides, and phosphates.
Cooling is necessary to prevent possible explosion from contact of potassium permanganate (or the calcium or sodium salts) with acetic acid
Liquid acetic acid will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.
An explosion occurred during initial heating up of a large volume of glacial acetic acid being treated with chromium trioxide. This was attributed to violent interaction of solid chromium trioxide and liquid acetic acid on a hot, exposed steam coil, and subsequent initiation of an explosive mixture of acetic acid vapor and air. The risk has been obviated by using a solution of dichromate in sulfuric acid as oxidant, in place of chromium trioxide. The sulfuric acid is essential, as the solid dichromate moist with acetic acid, obtained by evaporating an acetic acid solution to near-dryness, will explode.
Potassium hydroxide residue in a catalyst pot reacted violently when acetic acid was added.
Mixing acetic acid and 2-aminoethanol in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing glacial acetic acid and chlorosulfonic acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
During the preparation of beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl glutaric acid using 75 g of diallyl methyl carbinol, the material had been ozonized and allowed to stand overnight. Glacial acetic acid had been added and the mixture was being concentrated under vacuum in a desiccator. After 1 1/2 hours the mixture exploded. Previous preparations using 12.6 g were successful.
Mixing acetic acid and ethylene diamine in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing glacial acetic acid and ethyleneimine in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
A mixture of ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated.
In reactions between bromine pentafluoride and acetic acid, fire and explosions are likely.
The reaction between chlorine trifluoride and acetic acid is very violent, sometimes explosive.
Acetic anhydride was gradually being titrated into a mixture of chromic anhydride and acetic acid in a 20-gallon, glass-lined tank. After 1 1/2 hours of this procedure, the contents of the reactor exploded.
Mixing glacial acetic acid and oleum in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Explosions involving these materials /perchloric acid and acetic acid/ have occurred in electrolytic polishing baths. The violence in some cases approached that of a true high explosive.
Phosphorus isocyanate and acetic acid react violently.
Several laboratory explosions have occurred using this reaction /phosphorus trichloride and acetic acid/ to form acetyl chloride. Poor heat control probably caused formation of phosphine.
Ignition occurs when potassium t-butoxide reacts with acetic acid.
During the production of terephthalic acid, n-xylene is oxidized in the presence of acetic acid. During these processes, detonating mixtures may be produced. Addition of a small amount of water may largely eliminate the risk of explosion.
Mixing sodium hydroxide and glacial acetic acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixtures of /acetic acid, acetic anhydride & perchloric acid/ have varying degrees of sensitivity to shock. Vapors above the heated mixtures are flammable.
Erroneous addition of aqueous acetic acid into a tank of acetic anhydride caused a violent exothermic hydrolysis.
Strong oxidizers (especially chromic acid, sodium peroxide & nitric acid), strong caustics [Note: Corrosive to metals].
- Other Preventative Measures:
- SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
Special precautions: Liquid acetic acid will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.
Clothing contaminated with acetic acid should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of acetic acid from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or otherwise cleaned to remove the acetic acid, the person performing the operation should be informed of acetic acid's hazardous properties.
Employees who handle solid or liquid acetic acid or solutions containing acetic acid should wash their hands thoroughly before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated with solid or liquid acetic acid or solutions containing 50% or more of acetic acid by weight should be removed immediately and not reworn until the acetic acid is removed from the clothing. Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated with solutions containing less than 50% but greater than 10% of acetic acid by weight should be removed promptly ad not reworn until the acetic acid is removed from the clothing.
Where there is any possibility of exposure of an employees' body to solid or liquid acetic acid or solutions containing 50% or more of acetic acid by weight, facilities for quick drenching of the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. />10%/
Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard. />10%/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Deep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime.
- Protective Equipment and Clothing:
- Persons working with pure acid or concentrated solution should wear protective clothing, eye and face, hand and arm protection, and respiratory equipment.
500 ppm: Chemical cartridge respirator with an organic vapor cartridge(s) with a full facepiece or gas mask with an organic vapor canister (chin-style or front- or back-mounted canister) or supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece, helmet, or hood, or self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. 1000 ppm: Type C supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode or with a full facepiece, helmet, or hood operated in continuous-flow mode. Escape: Gas mask with an organic vapor canister (chin-style or front- or back-mounted canister) self-contained breathing apparatus.
Breakthrough times of greater than one hour were reported by (normally) two or more testers for neoprene, nitrile rubber, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, natural rubber and Vitron.
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possibility of skin contact with solid or liquid acetic acid or solutions containing 50% or more of acetic acid by weight and to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact with solutions containing 10% or more but less than 50% of acetic acid by weight.
Employees should be provided with and required to use dust- and splash-proof safety goggles where there is any possibility of solid or liquid acetic acid or solutions containing acetic acid contacting the eyes.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. />10%/
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possbility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. />5%/
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] />50%/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 50 ppm: (Assigned protection factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance causes eye irritation or damage; eye protection needed./(Assigned protection factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s). Substance causes eye irritation or damage; eye protection needed./(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s)/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode/(Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister/Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
- Acetic acid (CAS NO.64-19-7), its Synonyms are Acetic acid 0.25% in plastic container ; Acetic acid, glacial ; Aci-Jel ; Acide acetique ; Ethanoic acid ; Ethanoic acid monomer ; Ethylic acid.
- Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:
- log Kow = -0.17
- Disposal Methods:
- SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Excess acetic acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in a covered metal container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for acetic acid: Activated carbon.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for acetic acid: Reverse osmosis.
Use and Manufacturing
- Use and Manufacturing:
- Methods of Manufacturing
Obtained from destructive distillation of wood; from acetylene and water, via acetaldehyde by oxidation with air.
Liquid- and vapor-phase oxidation of petroleum gases (with catalyst); (b)oxidation of acetaldehyde; (c) reaction of methanol and carbon monoxide (with catalyst; this is the most cost efficient method and has been in general use for some years); (d) fermentative oxidation of ethanol.
Acetaldehyde (air oxidation): acetaldehyde + oxygen (Hoechst-Shawinigan process; coproduced with acetic anhydride): acetaldehyde (air oxidation; coproduced with peracetic acid): methanol + carbon monoxide (BASF/Monsanto carbonylation processes): methanol + carbon monoxide (BP acetyls process; coproduced with acetic anhydride): naphtha, heavy (liquid-phase oxidation; coproduced with acetone/methyl ethyl ketone/formic acid/propionic acid): n-butane (Celanese LPO process; coproduced with methanol/ethanol/acetone/methyl ethyl ketone/formic acid/propionic acid/n-butyric acid/methyl formate): acetic anhydride + cotton linters/bleached wood pulp (acetylation/partial hydrolysis; byproduct of cellulose acetate production)U.S. Exports
(1975) 2.42X10+9 G
(1984) 9.17X10+9 gU.S. Imports
(1972) 4.54X10+7 G
(1975) 2.72X10+8 G
(1983) 2.72X10+10 g (EST)U.S. Production
(1972) 1.01X10+12 G
(1975) 9.98X10+11 G
(1984) 1.19X10+12 G /SYNTHETIC/
1990 1.71X10+12 G
(1990) 3.75 billion lb
(1991) 3.62 billion lb
(1992) 3.59 billion lb
(1993) 3.66 billion lb
In 1996 total world acetic acid production was about 5.5X10+6 t/a.
In 1996, North America was the region with the greatest acetic acid production at about 36% of the world total. Western Europe was second with about 24% followed by Japan at 15% and Eastern Asia with 14%.Consumption Patterns
Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM), 60%; acetic anhydride, including production of cellulose acetate, 10%; esters, 10%; CMT/PTA, 10%; miscellaneous, including textiles and chloroacetic acid, 10%.
Demand: 1994: 3.82 billion pounds; 1995: 3.9 billion pounds; 1999 /projected/: 4.2 billion pounds (Figures are for the US and include exports, which were 260 million pounds in 1993, but not imports, which were 25 million pounds.)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Acetic acid. Demand: 1988: 3.36 billion lb; 1989: 3.45 billion lb; 1993 /projected/: 3.80 billion lb. (1988 figure includes imports of 193 million lb, much of which was brought in by Hoechst Celanese in response to the outage at Pampa; historically, imports are negligible. All figures include exports.)
- Acetic acid is used as table vinegar, as preservative and as an intermediate in the chemical industry, e.g. acetate fibers, acetates, acetonitrile, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, softening agents, dyes (indigo) etc. Product Data Sheet.
- Sampling Procedures:
- A range of 5 to 50 ppm of acetic acid in air may be determined using a Drager detector tube for acetic acid. A color change of the bluish-violet layer to yellow indicates acetic acid. The color change is based on the reaction between acetic acid and an acid indicator in the reaction ampule.
NIOSH Method 1603. Analyte: Acetic acid Matrix: Air. Sampler: Solid sorbent tube (coconut shell charcoal, 100 mg/50 mg). Flow Rate: 0.01 to 1.0 l/min. Sample Size: 100 liters. Sample Stability: At least 7 days at 25 deg C.
Atmospheric organic acids were collected on a potassium hydroxide impregnated quartz filter and derivatized to p-bromophenacyl esters.
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
- Pharmacological Action:
- Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
- Therapeutic Uses:
- MEDICATION (Vet): Vesicant, caustic, destructive of warts.
/Acetic acid/ in 5% concn is bactericidal to many types of microorganisms, and it is bacteriostatic at lower concn. It is applied prophylactically as a 1% solution in surgical dressings and as a 0.25% solution during bladder catheterization and for bladder irrigation. Otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas, Candida, or Aspergillus is treated with 2 to 5% solutions. Concn of 5% are applied to extensive burns to suppress the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is quite susceptible. Vaginal douches with 0.25 and 1% solutions are used to treat infections caused by Candida and Trichomonas and also as spermatocides.
Solutions of 3% to 10% acetic acid (in vinegar) have been shown to rapidly inactivate the penetrating nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri.
- Biomedical Effects and Toxicity:
- Acetic acid is absorbed from the GI tract and through the lung.
Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential
- Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:
- TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), Koc values of 6.5 to 228(2), indicate that acetic acid is expected to have very high to moderate mobility in soil(SRC). A pKa of 4.74(3) indicates acetic acid will exist almost entirely in the ionized form at pH values of 5 to 9 and therefore volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC). The potential for volatilization of acetic acid from dry soil surfaces may exist(SRC) based upon a vapor pressure of 15.7 mm Hg(4). The major environmental fate process for acetic acid in soil is biodegradation(SRC). A large number of biological screening studies have determined that acetic acid biodegrades readily under both aerobic(5-8) and anaerobic(9-11) conditions. Using a modified Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) protocol, 75% degradation was reported in 14 days using garden soil as an inoculum(12). In a second soil study, a half-life of 24 minutes was measured for radiolabeled acetic acid in a soil sample(13). The percent decomposition of 14C-labeled acetic acid in Greenfield sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed thermic Typic Haploxeralf) top soil (pH 7.0) was reported to be 52-76% after 1 week and 71-87% after 12 weeks(14).
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), Koc values of 6.5 to 228(2), indicates that acetic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). This compound is expected to exist in the dissociated form in the environment based on a pKa of 4.74(3), and therefore volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC). According to a classification scheme(4), an estimated BCF of 3.2(SRC), from its log Kow of -0.71(5) and a regression-derived equation(6), suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). The dominant environmental fate process for acetic acid in water is expected to be biodegradation(SRC). A large number of biological screening studies have determined that acetic acid biodegrades readily under aerobic(7-10) and anaerobic(7-13) conditions. In the French Association for Standardization (AFNOR) T 90/103 test, 36% of the theoretical BOD was reached in 5 days using microbes from 3 polluted surface waters(8). Greater than 90% degradation was reported in 3 days using an activated sludge inoculum in the Zahn-Wellens test(7).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), acetic acid , which has a vapor pressure of 15.7 mm Hg at 25 deg C(SRC), from experimentally derived coefficients(2), is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase acetic acid is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 22 days(SRC), calculated from its measured rate constant of 7.4X10-13 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(3). Acetic acid does not absorb light with wavelengths >290 nm(4), and is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight(SRC).
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