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1,2,3-Propanetriol ( CASNO:56-81-5 )

Identification and Related Records
Name:
1,2,3-Propanetriol
CAS Registry number:
56-81-5
Synonyms:
Glycerol (8CI)
Propanetriol (7CI)
1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane
E 422
Emery 916
Emery 917
G 101
GL 300
Glyceol Opthalgan
Glycerin
Glycerin DG
Glycerine
Glycyl alcohol
Glyrol
Glysanin
IFP
Incorporationfactor
Mackstat H 66
NSC 9230
Osmoglyn
Pricerine 9088
Pricerine 9091
Trihydroxypropane
Glycerol
EINECS(EC#):
200-289-5
Molecular Formula:
C3H5(OH)3
Molecular Weight:
92.09
Inchi:
InChI=1/C3H8O3/c4-1-3(6)2-5/h3-6H,1-2H2
Canonical SMILES:
C(C(CO)O)O
Chemical and Physical Properties
Appearance:
Clear, colorless, viscous liquid
Density:
1.25
Melting Point:
18℃
Boiling Point:
290℃
Refractive Index:
1.452-1.475
Flash Point:
160℃
Water:
>500 g/L (20℃)
Solubilities:
Miscible
Color/Form:
Syrupy, rhombic plates
Cleas, colorless syrupy liquid
Clear, colorless, syrupy liquid or solid (below 64 degrees F)[Note: The solid form melts above 64 degrees F but the liquid form freezes at a much lower temperature].
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with perchloric acid, lead oxide, acetic anhydride, nitrobenzene, chlorine, peroxides, strong acids, strong bases. Combustible.
HS Code:
29054500
Storage temp:
2-8°C
Spectral properties:
Imdex of Refraction: 1.4730 @ 25 DEG C/D
Max Absorption(Undiluted): 270 NM (LOG E= -1.2); SADTLER REF NUMBER: 169 (IR, PRISM)
IR: 10001 (Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Grating Collection)
UV: 3-12 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
NMR: 4979 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 188 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
Computed Properties:
Molecular Weight:92.09382 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C3H8O3
XLogP3:-1.8
H-Bond Donor:3
H-Bond Acceptor:3
Rotatable Bond Count:2
Exact Mass:92.047344
MonoIsotopic Mass:92.047344
Topological Polar Surface Area:60.7
Heavy Atom Count:6
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:25.2
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:3
Feature 3D Donor Count:3
Effective Rotor Count:2
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:9
Safety and Handling
Hazard Codes:
F:Flammable
Risk Statements:
R36;R20/21/22;R11
Safety Statements:
S24/25;S39;S26
Safety:
Hazard Codes: FlammableF,HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 36-20/21/22-11
36:Irritating to the eyes
20/21/22: Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
11: Highly Flammable
Safety Statements: 24/25-39-26
24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes
39: Wear eye/face protection
26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
RIDADR: UN 1282 3/PG 2
WGK Germany: 1
F: 3: Hygroscopic.
HS Code: 29054500
PackingGroup:
Z01
Sensitive:
Hygroscopic
Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations:
Glycerin dropped on the human eye causes a strong stinging and burning sensation, with tearing and dilation of the conjunctival vessels, but no obvious injury.
Cleanup Methods:
Absorb with paper. Evaporate completely all spilt surface. Dispose by burning the paper after complete ventilation of vapor.
Transport:
250kgs in
Fire Fighting Procedures:
Alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical.
Water fog. Water or foam may cause frothing.
Fire Potential:
Fire Hazard: Low, when exposed to heat, flame, or powerful oxidizers.
Formulations/Preparations:
Glycerin, oral soln, 50% VOL/VOL (0.628 G/ML) osmoglyn (with potassium sorbate; in lime-flavored, alcon.
Glycerin (anhydrous), ophthalmic soln, ophthalgan (with chlorobutanol) wyeth-ayerst.
USP, CP (pharmaceutical & commercial, where highest grade is required); Saponification, soap lye, crude yellow distilled high gravity or dynamite(dehydrated to 99.8-99.9% purity); Natural; synthetic; "Food Chemical Codex".
Several grades of glycerin are available commercially. They differ somewhat in their glycerol content and in other characteristics such as color, odor, and trace impurities.
50% (v/v) (equivalent to 3.1 g/5 ml) (Rx) (Osmoglyn); 75% (v/v) (equivalent to 4.7 g/5 ml) (Rx) (Glyrol).
Grades of Purity: CP: 99.5%; USP: 96%
Exposure Standards and Regulations:
Glycerin used as a multiple purpose GRAS food substance in food for human consumption is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice.
Glycerin used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
Reactivities and Incompatibilities:
Exothermic interaction of granular /sodium/ hydride with undiluted (viscous) glycerol with inadequate stirring caused charring to occur.
Incompatibilities: Strong oxidizers
Can react violently with acetic anhydride, (aniline + nitrobenzene), Ca(OCl)2, chromium trioxide, chromic oxide, (fluoride + lead monoxide), (HClO4 + lead monoxide), potassium permanganate, K2O2, silver perchlorate, sodium peroxide, NaH.
Strong oxidizers (e.g., chromium trioxide, potassium chlorate, potassium permanganate) [Note: Hygroscopic (i.e., absorbs moisture from the air)].
Other Preventative Measures:
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Protective Equipment and Clothing:
Persons engaged in synth processes should wear suitable personal protective equipment & eye protective equipment. As with plant used for saponification & hydrolysis high standard of maintenance should be observed.
Rubber gloves, goggles.
Specification:
Glycerol , its cas register number is 56-81-5. It also can be called Glycerine ; 1,2,3-Propanetriol ; Clyzerin, wasserfrei ; and 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane ;Glycerin .
Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:
log Kow = -1.76
Disposal Methods:
Mixture with a more flammable solvent followed by incineration.
Use and Manufacturing
Use and Manufacturing:
Methods of Manufacturing
(Synthetic) hydration of epichlorohydrin followed by reaction with sodium hydroxide; reaction of allyl alcohol with hydrogen peroxide; reaction of allyl alcohol with peracetic acid followed by hydrolysis; (Narural) by-product in soap or fatty acid MFR
Production from sugars by fermentation. during world war i supplementary quantities were produced by "protol" fermentation process from sugar, process based upon fixation of acetaldehyde by sodium sulfite.
By hydrolysis of fats & oils through pressure & superheated steam. Also by chlorinating propylene @ about 400 deg c to form allyl chloride, which is converted to allyl alcohol. Treatment with hypochlorous acid yields chlorohydrin deriv. extraction of hcl with soda lime yields 2,3-epoxypropanol which undergoes hydration to glycerin.
By product of soap manufacture; from propylene and chlorine to form allyl chloride which is converted to the dichlorohydrin with hypochlorous acid; this is then saponified to glycerol with caustic solution; isomerization of propylene oxide to allyl alcohol, which is reacted with peracetic acid; the resulting glycidol is hydrolyzed to glycerol; hydrogenation of carbohydrates with nickel catalyst; from acrolein and hydrogen peroxide. Method of purification: redistillation, ion-exchange techniques.

U.S. Exports
(1972) 2.89X10+10 GRAMS (CRUDE & REFINED)
(1975) 2.0X10+10 GRAMS (CRUDE & REFINED)

U.S. Imports
(1972) 5.04X10+8 GRAMS (CRUDE & REFINED)
(1975) 2.1X10+8 GRAMS (CRUDE & REFINED)

U.S. Production
(1972) 1.59X10+11 Grams (Natural & Synthetic)
(1975) 1.24X10+11 Grams(Natural & Synthetic)

Consumption Patterns
23% in drugs as vehicle, for smoothness, to maintain moisture, & as humectant, solvent, & lubricant in cosmetics & toilet prepns; 21% in prodn of alkyd resin surface coatings; 15% as humectant in tobacco; 12% as solvent for flavors & food colors, smoothing agent & humectant in foods, & in prepn of quick frozen foods; 11% as softener or plasticizer in cellophane; 7% in MFR of polyester polyols for urethane foams; 5% as chem int for the explosive, nitroglycerin; 6% in numerous misc applications (1974)
Chemical Profile: Glycerine. Drugs and toothpaste, 20%; tobacco, 19%; cosmetics, 15%; foods, 13%; alkyd resins, 12%; polyether polyols for urethanes, 8%; cellophane, 4%; explosives, 1%; miscellaneous, including agriculture, adhesives, leather, photography, textiles, ink rubber, wood and others, 8%.
Chemical Profile: Glycerine. Demand: 1986: 365 million lb; 1987: 372 million lb; 1991 /projected/: 400 million lb.
Chemical Profile: Glycerine. Drugs, toothpaste & cosmetics, 28%; tobacco, 15%; foods, 12%; polyether polyols for urethanes, 10%; alkyd resins, 5%; cellophane, 2%; distributor sales and miscellaneous, 28%.
Chemical Profile: Glycerine. Demand: 1989: 307.7 million lb; 1990: 314 million lb; 1994 /projected/: 340 million lb (Represents apparent domestic comsumption: production plus imports minus exports).
Usage:
Cosmetics, hand lotions, adjuvant.
Sampling Procedures:
NIOSH Method 600. Analyte: Glycerin mist. Matrix: Dust. Sampler: Cyclone + filter (10 mm Dorr-Oliver cyclone + tared 5 um polyvinyl chloride. Flow Rate: 1.7 l/min. Sample Size: 2.4 mg/cu m. Shipment: Routine. Sample Stability: Indefinitely. /Glycerin mist/
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
Pharmacological Action:
- Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
- Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Therapeutic Uses:
Cathartics; Cryoprotective Agents; Solvents; Vehicles
To increase the efficiency of humidifying inhalations.
Hygroscopic agents(Glycern) are added in attempt to draw more water into bronchial secretions & thus reduce their viscosity.
Glycerin ophthalmic soln may be used topically to reduce superficial corneal edema resulting from disease to facilitate opthalmoscopic and gonioscopic examination.
Glycerin by oral & parenteral admin has been used for management of cerebral edema & to lower ocular tension in glaucoma, & decr cerebrospinal fluid pressure.
Medication (VET):orally, as adjunct to acetonemia therapy especially in refractory or relapsing cases in cattle & sheep (its fermentation in rumen converts it to propionic acid, antiketogenic substance). oral doses may be laxative, but this effect is best accomplished by rectal infusion or as suppositories. inherently a lubricant, glycerine also works by local irritation & fecal evacuation. topically, its osmotic effect is also used in otitis externa; on wounds, where it acts as bacteriostatic agent (if over 50% concn); as lymphagogue on eye, where it reduces corneal edema; & in poultices.
patients who have chronic difficulty with hard, but not impacted, cerumen may beadvised to instill light glycerin into ear canal occasionally to soften cerumen & promote normal removal.
Glycerin suppositories-osmotically-active agents promote defecation by retaining water in intestinal lumen through osmotic forces. May also act by stimulating the release of cholecystokinin.
Glucerin is administered orally to reduce interocular pressure especially in patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma prior to iridectomy. Usually used in conjunction with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or topical miotic therapy. Glycerin is also used to lower intraocular pressure resulting from trauma or disease, either prior to or following surgery in such conditions as congenital glaucoma, retinal detachment surgery, routine cataract extraction, keratoplasty, & open-angle (primary glaucoma). Also in lowering pressure in secondary glaucoma. Because only a small precentage of admin dose of glycerin is excreted by kidneys, glycerin may be preferred over urea or mannitol to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with impaired renal function. Usual oral dose of Glycerin is 0.8 mL (1 G) TO 1.2 mL (1.5 G)/KG of body WT. Addtional doses may be admin @ approx 5 HR intervals. When glycerin is used preoperatively, it should be admin 60-90 min. before surgery.
Glycerin is indicated for short-term reduction of intraocular pressure in treatment of an acute attack of glaucoma or during or after ophthalmic surgery
When admin orally therapeutic dose, glycerin elevates osmotic pressure of plasma to extent that water from extravascular spaces is drawn into blood. Osmotic effect of glycerin produces decr in intraocular pressure by reducing vol of intraocular fluids completely independent of normal ocular fluid inflow & outflow mechanism.
Cerebral edema: Glycerin elevates blood plasma osmolality, resulting in enhanced flow of water from extravascular spaces into plasma. Withdrawal of fluid from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid by osmosis may result in reduction of elevated intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure.
Glaucoma: Glycerin elevates blood plasma osmolality, resulting in enhanced flow of water from the eye into plasma and a consequent reduction in intraocular pressure.
Medication (VET): lymphagogue; blood cell & sperm preservative.
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity:
Following absorbption from gi tract, glycerin is distributed throughout the blood. Although glycerin glycerin generally does not appear in ocular fluids, it may enter the orbital sac when the eye is inflamed, with a consequent decr in osmotic effect.
Most of an orally admin dose is incorporated into body fat. Approx 7-14% of dose is excreted unchanged in the urine./Within 2 1/2 HR after admin/.
Following oral administration, glycerin is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract, and peak serum concn occur with 60-90 min. incr intraocular pressure begins to decline with 10-30 min following oral adminstration of glycerin.
Elimination: renal; about 7 to 14% of a dose may be excreted unchanged within 2.5 hr.
Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential
Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:
TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released to soil, glycerin is expected to undergo rapid biodegradation under aerobic conditions(1). Biodegradation under anaerobic conditions is also expected to occur(2-3). Based on an experimental log octanol/water partition coefficient of -1.76(4) and its water solubility, 1,220,000 mg/l at 5 deg C(5), soil adsorption coefficients for glycerin can be estimated at 3 and 2(SRC), respectively, using regression-derived equations(6). The magnitude of these values indicate that glycerin will display very high mobility in soil(7). Based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.75X10+11 atm cu-m/mol(6) and vapor pressure, 1.58X10-4 mm Hg at 25 deg C(8) glycerin is not expected to significantly volatilize from wither moist or dry soil to the atmosphere(SRC).
AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, glycerin is expected to rapidly degrade under aerobic conditions(1). Degradation is also likely in seawater(2) and under anaerobic conditions(3-4). Based on an experimental log octanol/water partition coefficient of -1.76(3) and its water solubility, 1,220,000 mg/l at 5 deg C(4), bioconcentration factors for glycerin can be estimated at 3 and 0.2(SRC), respectively, using regression-derived equations(5). The magnitude of these values indicate that bioconcentration in fish and aquatic organisms is not likely to occur to a significant extent. Estimated soil adsorption coefficients of 2 and 3(5) indicated that adsorption to sediment and suspended organic matter will not be important. Based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.75X10+11 atm cu-m/mol(6-7), volatilization of glycerin from water will be slower then for water itself(5).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere, glycerin may undergo a gas-phase oxidation with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. An estimated rate constant for this reaction of 1.7X10-11 cu- cm/molec-sec at 25deg C(1) translates to an atmospheric half-life of 33 hrs(SRC) using an average atmospheric hydroxyl radical concn of 5X10+5 molec/cu-cm(2). The water solubility of glycerin, 1,220,000 mg/l at 5 deg C(3), indicates that it may also undergo atmospheric removal by wet deposition processes(SRC).
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