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Oxalic acid ( CASNO:144-62-7 )
Identification and Related Records
- Oxalic acid
- CAS Registry number:
- Ethanedionic acid
Oxalic acid anhydrous
Refined Oxalic Acid
Anhydrous Oxalic Acid
- Molecular Formula:
- Molecular Weight:
- Canonical SMILES:
Chemical and Physical Properties
- Odorless white solid
- Melting Point:
- Boiling Point:
- 2.51E-06mmHg at 25°C
- Flash Point:
- 90 g/L (20℃)
- Water solubility: 90 g/L (20 °C)
- ANHYDROUS OXALIC ACID, CRYSTALLIZED FROM GLACIAL ACETIC ACID IS ORTHORHOMBIC, CRYSTALS BEING PYRAMIDAL OR ELONGATED OCTAHEDRA
Colorless powder or granular solid [Note: The anhydrous form (COOH)2 is a white powder].
- Stable, but moisture sensitive. Incompatible with metals.
- Spectral properties:
- IR: 8279 (Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Grating Collection)
NMR: 17060 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 52 (National Bureau of Standards EPA-NIH Mass Spectra Data Base, NSRDS-NBS-63)
- Computed Properties:
- Molecular Weight:90.03488 [g/mol]
Rotatable Bond Count:1
Topological Polar Surface Area:74.6
Heavy Atom Count:6
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:4
Feature 3D Anion Count:2
Effective Rotor Count:1
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1
Safety and Handling
- Hazard Codes:
- Risk Statements:
- Safety Statements:
- Poison by subcutaneous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A skin and severe eye irritant. Acute oxalic poisoning results from ingestion of a solution of the acid. There is marked corrosion of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach, with symptoms of vomiting, burning abdominal pain, collapse, and sometimes convulsions. Death may follow quickly. The systemic effects are attributed to the removal by the oxalic acid of the calcium in the blood. The renal tubules become obstructed by the insoluble calcium oxalate, and there is profound kidney disturbance. The chief effects of inhalation of the dusts or vapor are severe irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal disturbances, albuminuria, gradual loss of weight, increasing weakness and nervous system complaints, ulceration of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, epistaxis, headache, irritation, and nervousness. Oxalic acid has a caustic action on the skin and may cause dermatitis; a case of early gangrene of the fingers resembling that caused by phenol has been described. More severe cases may show albuminuria, chronic cough, vomiting, pain in the back, and gradual emaciation and weakness. The skin lesions are characterized by cracking and fissuring of the skin and the development of slow-healing ulcers. The skin may be bluish in color, and the nails brittle and yellow. Violent reaction with furfuryl alcohol, Ag, NaClO3, NaOCl. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also OXALATES.
Risk Statements: 21/22-63-34?
R21/22:Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.?
R63:Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
Safety Statements: 24/25-23-36/37/39-27-26?
S23:Do not breathe vapour.?
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes.?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S27:Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.?
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
- Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations:
- The chief effects of inhalation of the dust or vapor are irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.
- Cleanup Methods:
- Cover with soda ash or sodium bicarbonate. Mix and add water. Neutralize and drain into a drain with sufficient water.
- UN 3261
- Fire Fighting Procedures:
- USE WATER SPRAY, DRY CHEM, "ALC RESISTANT" FOAM, OR CARBON DIOXIDE. DUST MAY BE REDUCED WITH WATER SPRAY. AQUEOUS SOLUTION MUST BE CONTAINED FOR DISPOSAL. USE WATER TO KEEP FIRE-EXPOSED CONTAINERS COOL. WATER MAY CAUSE FOAMING OF MOLTEN MATERIAL. /OXALIC ACID DIHYDRATE/
- Technical (crystals and powder); chemically pure: a grade designation signifying a minimum of impurities, but not 100% purity.
THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCT IS COMPRISED OF WHITE TO COLORLESS MONOCLINIC PRISMS OR GRANULES CONTAINING 71.42 wt% ANHYDROUS OXALIC ACID AND 28.58 wt% WATER
- Reactivities and Incompatibilities:
- Reacts with strong alkalies, strong oxidizing materials, chlorites, and hypochlorites. /Oxalic acid dihydrate/
Strong oxidizers, silver compounds, strong alkalis, chlorites [Note: Gives off water of crystallization at 215 degrees F and begins to sublime].
- Other Preventative Measures:
- Adequate ventilation.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
- Protective Equipment and Clothing:
- ... EYE & SKIN PROTECTION /MUST/ BE PROVIDED FOR PERSONS WORKING WITH OXALIC ACID.
Wear special protective clothing and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus. /Oxalic acid dihydrate/
If mists of oxalic acid should be encountered from hot solutions ... adequate ventilation should be provided or proper respiratory protective devices worn.
Respirator for dust or mist protection; rubber, neoprene, or vinyl gloves; chemical safety glasses; rubbers, over leather or rubber safety shoes; apron or impervious clothing for splash protection.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 25 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. Eye protection needed. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a dust and mist filter. Eye protection needed.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 50 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 500 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
- ?Oxalic acid , its cas register number is 144-62-7. It also can be called Ethanedionic acid ; and Oxalic acid anhydrous . It is hazardous, so the first aid measures and others should be known. Such as: When on the skin: first, should flush skin with plenty of water immediately for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing. Secondly, get medical aid. Or in the eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Then get medical aid soon. While, it's inhaled: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. Give artificial respiration while not breathing. When breathing is difficult, give oxygen. And as soon as to get medical aid. Then you have the ingesting of the product: If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid immediately. Notes to physician: Treat supportively and symptomatically.
In addition, Oxalic acid (CAS NO.144-62-7)?absorbs moisture or water from the air. It is not compatible with?Metals, strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, acid chlorides, sodium hypochlorite, steel, mercury, silver, sodium chloride, chlorites, and you must not take it with incompatible materials. And also prevent it to broken down into hazardous decomposition products:?formic acid, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.
- Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.
- Disposal Methods:
- Oxalic acid is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. Pretreatment involves chemical reaction with limestone or calcium oxide forming calcium oxalate. This may then be incinerated utilizing particulate collection equipment to collect calcium oxide for recycling.
Use and Manufacturing
- Use and Manufacturing:
- Methods of Manufacturing
MADE BY PASSING CARBON MONOXIDE INTO CONCENTRATED SODIUM HYDROXIDE OR BY HEATING SODIUM FORMATE IN PRESENCE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE OR SODIUM CARBONATE.
OXALIC ACID IS PRODUCED COMMERCIALLY BY NITRIC ACID OXIDATION OF STARCH, SUGAR, OR ETHYLENE GLYCOL
OXALIC ACID IS A CO-PRODUCT OF THE FERMENTATION OF MOLASSES TO CITRIC ACID. OXALIC ACID CAN BE MADE BY FUSING SAWDUST (OR OTHER FORMS OF CELLULOSE) WITH A MIXTURE OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE. TEXACO WAS GRANTED A PATENT IN 1973 FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF OXALIC ACID FROM CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN.U.S. Exports
1.68X10+8 gU.S. Imports
(1972) 8.6X10+8 G
(1975) 1.73X10+9 G
(1984) 9.31X10+9 gU.S. Production
(1972) 1.0X10+10 G
(1974) 8.17X10+9 G
(1982) 9.08X10+8 G (EST)Consumption Patterns
27% FOR TEXTILE FINISHING, STRIPPING AND CLEANING; 27% FOR METAL AND EQUIPMENT CLEANING; 25% AS A CHEMICAL INTERMEDIATE; 2% FOR LEATHER TANNING; 19% FOR MISC APPLICATIONS (1971)
33% FOR TEXTILE /APPLICATIONS/; 20% FOR METAL; 7% FOR LEATHER; 20% FOR OXALATES; AND 20% FOR OTHER USE (1983)
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
- Pharmacological Action:
- - Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
- Biomedical Effects and Toxicity:
- TARTARIC & OXALIC ACIDS ARE EXCRETED IN URINE UNCHANGED.
The absorption of (14)C-labelled oxalic acid was studied in Wistar rats, CD-1 mice and NMRI mice. Oxalic acid in solution was given to the animals by gavage either with water alone or with 0.625 g/kg body wt of xylitol. Both xylitol adapted animals and animals not previously exposed to xylitol were used. Adaptation to xylitol diets enhanced the absorption and urinary excretion of the label (oxalic acid) in both strains of mice but not in rats. Earlier studies have indicated a high incidence of bladder calculi in mice but not in rats fed high amounts of xylitol. The results of the present study offer one likely explanation for the increased formation of bladder calculi as a result of over saturation of urine with oxalate. [Salminen S et al; Toxicol Lett 44 (1-2): 113-20 (1988)] PubMed Abstract
Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential
- Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:
- TERRESTRIAL FATE: An estimated Koc value of 5(1,SRC) for oxalic acid indicates high mobility in soil(2) and oxalic acid has been detected in groundwater(3). Volatilization from moist soils is not expected to be rapid based upon a low Henry's Law constant. Several screening studies indicate rapid biodegradation of oxalic acid(4-8). Although these studies are not specific to soil media, they suggest that oxalic acid will readily biodegrade in soil. The oxalic acid concn in another study was determined to decrease from 30 mg/kg on a soil surface to about 6 mg/kg 540 cm below the soil surface(3) which suggests that biodegradation may have occurred(SRC). Photolysis is expected to be an important terrestrial fate process; the daytime persistence of oxalic acid on soil surfaces is not expected to exceed a few hours(9).
AQUATIC FATE: Several screening studies(4-8) and grab sample tests(9) indicate that under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, oxalic acid will readily biodegrade in aquatic ecosystems. Based on an experimental Henry's Law constant of 1.4X10-10 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(2), oxalic acid is expected to be essentially nonvolatile from water(1). Adsorption to sediment and bioconcentration in aquatic organisms may not be important fate processes for oxalic acid in water systems. Based on pKa1 and pKa2 values of 1.25 and 4.28(3), respectively, oxalic acid will exist primarily as the oxalate ion under environmental conditions (pH 5-9,SRC). Aquatic oxidation is not likely to be an important fate process based on a half-life of 285 yrs in water under continuous sunlight(3,SRC). Oxalic acid may react slowly in water with photochemically produced OH radicals, but it is expected to be removed rapidly from surface water by direct photolysis; the daytime persistence of oxalic acid is not expected to exceed a few hours(10).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based on a measured vapor pressure of 2.3410-4 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), oxalic acid is expected to exist almost entirely in the vapor phase in the ambient atmosphere(3). In the vapor phase, oxalic acid in the ambient atmosphere is very slowly degraded by reaction with photochemically formed hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air can be estimated to be about 223 days(1). Oxalic acid in the ambient atmosphere may react slowly with OH radicals, but it is removed rapidly by photolysis; the daytime persistence of oxalic acid is not expected to exceed a few hours(4). Based on its high water solubility, removal from air via wet deposition is likely to occur(4,SRC). Oxalic acid may also be removed from air via dry deposition with 11% of the total deposition being dry deposition(4).
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