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Tetramethylthiuram disulfide ( CASNO:137-26-8 )

Identification and Related Records
Tetramethylthiuram disulfide
CAS Registry number:
bis(dimethylthiocarbamyl) disulphide
thiram (tmtd)
tetramethylthiuram disulphide
tetramethyl thiuram disulfide
accel tmt
accelerator t
accelerator thiuram
aceto tetd
arasan 42s
arasan 70
arasan 70-s red
arasan 75
Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
Canonical SMILES:
Chemical and Physical Properties
white to off white powder
Melting Point:
Boiling Point:
129℃ (20 mmHg)
0.000726mmHg at 25°C
Refractive Index:
Flash Point:
139.7 °C
16.5 mg/L (20℃)
Water Solubility: 16.5 mg/L at 20 °C
White crystalline powder
Colorless to yellow, crystalline solid. (Note: commercial pesticide product may be dyed blue.)
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
HS Code:
Storage temp:
Spectral properties:
MAX ABSORPTION (CHLOROFORM): 243 NM (LOG E= 4.1), 282 NM (LOG E= 4.06)
IR: 21299 (Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Grating Collection)
NMR: 6403 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 11630 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral Database, 1990 Version)
Raman: 117 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
Intense mass spectral peaks: 88 m/z (100%), 120 m/z (24%), 44 m/z (16%), 240 m/z (14%)
Computed Properties:
Molecular Weight:240.43288 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C6H12N2S4
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:4
Rotatable Bond Count:3
Exact Mass:239.988331
MonoIsotopic Mass:239.988331
Topological Polar Surface Area:121
Heavy Atom Count:12
Formal Charge:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:2
Effective Rotor Count:5
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.6
CID Conformer Count:147
Safety and Handling
Hazard Codes:
Risk Statements:
Safety Statements:
Safety Information of Tetramethylthiuram disulfide (CAS NO. 137-26-8):
Hazard Codes: Xn?Harmful,N?Dangerous
Risk Statements: 20/22-36/38-43-48/22-50/53
R20/22:Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin
R43:May cause sensitization by skin contact
R48/22:Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R50/53:Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
Safety Statements: 26-36/37-60-61
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves
S60:This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets
RIDADR: UN 2771/2811
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: JO1400000
HazardClass: 9
PackingGroup: III
HS Code: 29303000
Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations:
Thiram dust is moderately irritating to human skin, eyes, and respiratory mucous membranes. A few individuals have experienced sensitization to thiram.
Cleanup Methods:
If thiram is spilled, the following steps should be taken: 1. Ventilate area of spill. 2. For small quantities, sweep onto paper or other suitable material, place in an appropriate container. Quantities may be reclaimed.
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents.
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Remove trapped material with suction hoses. Land spill: dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane,or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. Apply "universal" gelling agent to immobilize spill. Apply appropriate foam to diminish vapor and fire hazard.
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors.
UN 2771/2811
Fire Fighting Procedures:
Fire Fighting: Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources.
75% wettable powder, 95% technical powder, ND
Wettable powder; dustable powder; slurry for seed treatment; dry seed treatment; suspension concentrate.
Dispersible powder, eg Arasan 75 and Tersan 75= 75% (Dupont); dust for seed treatment usually 50%; Dusts, water suspensions. Thylate= 65% (Dupont).
Chaperone Rabbit and Deer Repellent: 7% thiram; Deer Ban: 10% thiram; Magic Circle Rabbit Repellent: 20% thiram; Rabbit Rid: 10% thiram; Science Rabbit and Deer Repellent: 20% thiram; TATGO: 22% thiram; Chew-not: 20% thiram; Gustafson 42-5: 42% thiram; Bonide Rabbit and Deer Repellent: 11% thiram.
Pearson's Melon and Pine Seed Protectant Seed Treatment-Insecticide and Fungicide is 64.27% thiram.
Dusts: 1-75% active ingredient; Granules: 1-75% active ingredient; Paint: 1% active ingredient; Wettable powders: 3-90% active ingredient; Flowable liquid: contains 15.4% thiram (w/w) and 17.3% Vitavax (w/w) ... Dry Powder Drill Box: Contains 40% Vitavax and 40% thiram ... Thylate: 65% thiram.
Formulations ... include: WP /wettable powder/ (less than or equal to 800 g ai/kg), SC, seed treatment. Mixtures include: Acti-dione thiram (750 g thiram + 7.5 g cycloheximide/kg); Benlate T 20 Fungicide, WP (200 g thiram + 200 g benomyl); Combinex (thiram + permethrin + petroleum oil); Dyfonate thiram 5-10 G, GR, (100 g thiram + 50 g fonofos/kg); Gammalex Liquid, LS (48 g thiram + 48 g carbendazin + 400 g gamma-HCH/l); Hexyl (thiram + gamma-HCH + rotenone) ... .
Homai, WP (300 g thiram + 500 g thiophanate-methyl/kg); Hy-Flier, LS (300 g thiram + 250 g bendiocarb/kg); Hysede, FS (140 g thiram + 400 g gamma-HCH + 120 g thiabendazole/l); Hy-TL, LS (300 g thiram + 225 g thiabendazole/l); Hy-VIC, FS (225 g thiram + 255 g thiabendazole/l); Lindex FS, FS (thiram + gamma-HCH); Rootone F, thiram + 4-indol-3-ylbutyric acid + methyl 2-(1-naphthyl)acetate + 2-(1-naphthyl)acetamide; Silbos T, WP (640 g thiram + 100 g vinclozolin/kg); Turbair Butryticide, UL (thiram + dicloran); thiram + carboxin. Discontinued formulation: Ferna-col.
Products: Ceku TMTD; Pomarsol; Thiram Granuflo; Thiratox; Thyram Plus; Tiurante. Mixtures: Anchor (+carboxin); Gaucho M (+imidacloprid+pencycuron); Gaucho T (+imidacloprid); Toram (+ thiophanate-methyl); Vitavax 200FF (+carboxin); Zaprawa Funaben T (+carbendazim). Other products: AApirol; Aatiram; Basultra; Buck Back; Defiant; ...Kodiak T; Moly-T; Protector D; Rhodiason; Rhodiauram; Sadoplon; Thianosan; Thiraflo; Thiraphox; Triple-Noctin; Zaprawa Nasienna T. Mixtures: Apron Elite (+carbendazim+cymoxanil+oxadixyl); ...Favour (+metalaxyl); Fortiva (+ metalaxyl+thiabendazole) (seed); Healthied T (+pefurazoate); ...Monceren T (+pencycuron); Raxil Extra (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, Poland); Raxil Flow (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, Chile); Raxil Gel 206 (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, Poland); Raxil Plus (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, Uruguay); Raxil T (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, E Europe); Raxil TM Liquido (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, Italy); Raxil Vital (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, E Europe); Raxil (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, E Europe); Raxil-Thiram (+tebuconazole) (seed treatment, USA); sHYlin (+ thiabendazole); Stiletto (+carboxin+metalaxyl); Super Homai (+diazinon+thiophanate-methyl); Teevic (+pencycuron); Viram Plus (+carbendazim); Vitavax CT (+carboxin); Vitavax M (+carboxin); Wakil (+ carbendazim+cymoxanil+oxadixyl); Zaprawa Oxafun T (+carboxin). Discontinued products: Arasan; Tersan; Liro Granuflo; Polyram Ultra; Tripomol. Mixtures: ...Apron Combi (+metalaxyl+thiabendazole) (seed); Ascot (+thiabendazole); ...Lindex Plus (+fenpropimorph+gamma-HCH); Oftanol T (+isofenphos); Vitavax RS (+carboxin+gamma-HCH); Vitavax-R (+carboxin).
For rubber processing, thiram is available as a fine powder containing 1.5-2.5% (max) white oil, as extruded pellets containing 5.5% oil, as a dispersion containing 30-40% binder or oil, in a mixture of two parts thiram to one part 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and as pellets in a 50:50 mixture with disulfiram.
For use as a pesticide, thiram is available as 1.0-75.0% in dust; as 2.25-5.0% in granule; as 11.25, 35.2 and 42.0% in liquid concentrates; as 2.0% in pastes; as 1.0% in pastes for wound dressing of shrubs and trees; and as 3.0-98.0% in wettable powders.
RTU-1010 Seed Protectant (with Vitavax)
Fernasan; discontinued
Bromosan-F; discontinued
Carbina TZ (with zineb)
Evershield T; discontinued
Southland Pearson Moly-Stand (with molybdenum)
Ronilan T-Combi (with vinclozolin)
Chipco thiram 75
Fernide; discontinued
Flo Pro T Seed Protectant
Nomersan; discontinued
Vancida TM-95
Vancide TM
Thimer; discontinued
Thiramad; discontinued
Pomarsol forte
Thiram 75
Tersan 75
Polyram ultra
Panoram 75
Exposure Standards and Regulations:
Thiram is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
Reactivities and Incompatibilities:
Strong oxidizers, strong acids, oxidizable materials.
Other Preventative Measures:
Avoid long-term exposure, even to small quantities ... . Do not consume alcohol on a day when thiram is used.
Eating and smoking should not be permitted in areas where thiram is handled, processed or stored.
Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.
Clothing contaminated with thiram should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of thiram from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or otherwise cleaned to remove the thiram, the person performing the operation should be informed of thiram's hazardous properties.
Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated with thiram should be removed promptly and not reworn until the thiram is removed from the clothing.
Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when they fail and need to be supplemented. Respirators may also be used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and in emergency situations. If the use of respirators are necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (formerly Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) or by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation. If employees' clothing may have become contaminated with solid thiram, employees should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent skin contact with thiram or liquids containing thiram, where skin contact may occur.
Employees who handle thiram or liquids containing thiram should wash their hands, thoroughly with soap or mild detergent and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
Skin that becomes contaminated with thiram should be promptly washed or showered with soap or mild detergent and water to remove any thiram.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Avoid bodily contact with the material. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing.
Protective Equipment and Clothing:
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 50 mg/cu m: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a dust, mist, and fume filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 100 mg/cu m: (Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a high-efficiency particulate filter/(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister having a high-efficiency particulate filter/(Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a dust, mist, and fume filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece/(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode/(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister having a high-efficiency particulate filter/Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus. ... Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material.
? Tetramethylthiuram disulfide?with cas registry number of 137-26-8?is white to almost white powder, also called?Disulfide, bis(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) ; Thioperoxydicarbonic diamide (((H2N)C(S))2S2), N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl- ; Thioperoxydicarbonic diamide (((H2N)C(S))2S2), tetramethyl- ; Thiram?; RCRA waste no. U244 .?It is incompatible with oxidizing materials, strong acids, strong alkalis and nitrating agents.?Tetramethylthiuram disulfide is always used for rice, wheat, TOBACCO, sugar beet, grapes and other crop diseases and pests, and it also can be used for seed dressing and soil treatment.
Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:
log Kow = 1.73
Disposal Methods:
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U244, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Thiram may be disposed of: 1. By making packages of thiram in paper or other flammable material and burning in a suitable combustion chamber equipped with an appropriate effluent gas cleaning device. 2. By dissolving thiram in a flammable solvent (such as alcohol) and atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber equipped with an appropriate effluent gas cleaning device.
Thiram can be dissolved in alcohol or other flammable solvents and burned in an incinerator with an afterburner and scrubber. Recommendable method: Incineration.
Incineration: Waste thiram should be disposed of by incineration. Bags should be thoroughly emptied before disposal. Empty bottles and drums should be thoroughly drained and triple rinsed. "Triple rinse" means the flushing of containers three times, each time using a volume of the normal diluent equal to approx ten percent of the container's capacity, and adding the rinse liquid to the spray mixture or disposing of it by a method prescribed for disposing of the pesticide.
Use and Manufacturing
Use and Manufacturing:
Methods of Manufacturing

Thiram is produced by careful oxidation of a N,N-dimethyl dithiocarbamate salt with hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, or air.
... First prepared by oxidation of dimethylamine salt of dimethyldithiocarbamic acid with iodine in ethanolic solution. ... In USA by passing chlorine gas through solution of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate. In Canada ... from iron oxide, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, dimethylamine, and carbon disulfide.
U.S. Production

This chemical is listed as a High Production Volume (HPV) (65FR81686; Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U.S. in >1 million pounds in 1990. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule. (IUR) (40 CFR part 710 subpart B; 51FR21438;
(1977) 1.69X10+9 G (SALES ONLY)
Consumption Patterns

Primary & secondary accelerator for rubbers, approximately 97%; other uses, 3% (1975).
About 97% of thiram utilized in USA is as primary & secondary accelerators in compounding natural, isobutylene-isoprene, butadiene, styrene-butadiene, synthetic isoprene & nitrile-butadiene rubbers.
Based on available data, approximately 165,000 lbs. of thiram are applied to 35,000 acres of strawberries, apples, and peaches annually and up to 631,000 lbs. ai/year are used to treat about 1.3 billion pounds of seed. The seed treatment use in terms of total pounds active ingredient is allocated as follows: cereal grains (73%), cotton seed (12%), large seeded vegetables (7%), soybeans (4%), and small seeded vegetables (3%). The largest foliar markets for thiram in terms of total pounds active ingredient are strawberries (60%), apples (35%), and peaches (3%). The remaining foliar uses are on ornamentals. Most of the foliar usage is in California, Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Washington. In 2003, Pennsylvania applied thiram to 17% of the total acres for peaches (646 acres out of 3,800 acres) based on USDA/NASS data. This is likely to be a sporadic incidence because thiram use was not reported in Pennsylvania in other years. Pennsylvania accounts for only about 3% of the total acres for peaches in the United States, while California, Georgia, and South Carolina together comprise more than 80%. However, Pennsylvania is the only state that shows thiram use on peaches in 2003. Even in 2003 with a relatively higher % acres treated with thiram in Pennsylvania, thiram use on peaches are still less than 3% of the total foliar usage of thiram.
Approximately 53,200 acres in the U.S. were treated with thiram during 1992(1). The estimated annual amounts of thiram applied to apple, strawberry, and peach crop land in the U.S. during 1992 were 139,755 pounds, 117,301 pounds, and 9,320 pounds, respectively(2). Approximately 616,283 ha in the U.K. were treated with thiram during 1992(3).
Fungicide for large brown patch snowmold and dollar spot on fine turfs.
Sampling Procedures:
NIOSH 5005: Air samples containing Thiram are taken with a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter, connected to a sampling pump calibrated between 1 to 3 l/min for total sample size of 10 to 400 l. This technique has an overall precision of 0.055 for a range of 3 to 12 mg/cu m for a 240 liter sample. Sample stability: 1 week.
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
Pharmacological Action:
- Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
- Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Therapeutic Uses:
Anti-Infective Agents, Local; Antifungal Agents; Carcinogens; Enzyme Inhibitors; Fungicides, Industrial; Mutagens
Has wide spectrum of antibacterial activity ... also effective against several dermatophytes. Serum does not appear to suppress its activity. ... marketed only as component of plastic film that is sprayed onto dry surgical wounds for purpose of preventing post operative infections. ... film containing 0.5% thiram.
Antifungal (topical)
Used in antiseptic sprays.
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity:
Tetramethylthiuramdisulfide appears to be readily absorbed through the intestinal tract and the lungs and is quickly and widely distributed throughout the body.
In 2 days following its ingestion, bis(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide (TMTD) is found in the liver and spleen together with its metabolites: amine salt dimethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDCA) and tetramethylthiourea, and in the lungs, carbon disulfide and the amine salt of DDCA. TMTD is known to form N-nitrosodimethylamine by reaction with nitrite in mildly acid solution. TMTD and the amine salt of DDCA are excreted from the body in the urine and feces, and as carbon disulfide via the lungs.
After absorption (respiratory, dermal, gastrointestinal), thiram is distributed in all organs and is mainly excreted unchanged in urine and feces. Some metabolism exists; carbon dioxide is exhaled and dithiocarbamate is excreted in urine.
Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential
Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), a measured Koc value of 676(2) indicates that thiram is expected to have low mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of thiram from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC) given a Henry's Law constant of 3.26X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(3). Thiram is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon an a vapor pressure of 1.72X10-5 mm Hg(2). The rate constant for the photolysis of thiram in soil has been reported to be 0.0346 per day(7). This rate constant corresponds to a half-life of 20 days(SRC). Microbial degradation in soil is expected since thiram has been reported to degrade faster in unsterilized soil than in sterilized soil; however, degradation rates were not specified(4). Half-lives for thiram measured during soil field studies range from 1 day to 15 weeks(5,6).
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Thiram, at a concentration of 180 ppm thoroughly distributed in soil, had a half-life of 1-2 days(1). However, when it was added as a dressing on 0.7 mm glass beads, approximately 10% degradation was observed after 21 days(1). Thiram applied to soil at 100 and 1000 ppm persisted for 4 and >32 weeks, respectively(2). In soil with humus content less than or equal to 1.2%, an initial lag in the decomposition of thiram has been observed(3). Thiram persisted over two months in sandy soil, but disappeared within one week in a compost soil(2). In addition, thiram has been more persistent in sandy soil than laterite and alluvial soils(2). The half-life of thiram applied to bareground and turf plots of sandy loam soil (pH 8.2-9.6) were 27.4 days and 14.4 days, respectively, during terrestrial field studies in California(4). Degradation was biphasic, with rapid initial degradation during the first week followed by much slower degradation(4). Half-lives of thiram applied to bareground (pH 4.1-4.7) and turf plots (pH 4.4-4.5) of sandy loam soil were 36 days and 62.5 days, respectively, during terrestrial field studies in North Carolina(4). In sandy soil humus at pH 3.5, thiram was largely decomposed after 4-5 weeks(5). Thiram decomposed after 14-15 weeks in soil at pH 7.0(5). Persistence of thiram in soil was much greater at 1000 ppm than at 100 ppm in soil(6). However, many of the soil microflora were killed at these concentrations(6).
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), a Koc value of 676(2), indicates that thiram is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(3) based upon a Henry's Law constant of 3.26X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(4). According to a classification scheme(5), BCF values of 1.1-4.4(6) suggest bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). The hydrolysis half-lives measured for thiram at pH 5, pH 7 and pH 9 were 68.5 days, 3.5 days, and 6.9 hours, respectively(7). The rate constant for the photolysis of thiram in water has been reported to be 3.8 per day, which corresponds to a half-life of 4.3 hours(8). Biodegradation is not expected to be an important fate process in water(SRC) based on 2.8% to 30% degradation after 20 days in screening tests using sewage sludge innocula(6,9,10). The half-life of thiram measured during a monitoring study conducted on the Po River in Italy was 15 days(11).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), thiram, which has a vapor pressure of 1.72X10-5 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), will exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase thiram is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 1 hour(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 3.62X10-10 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(SRC) that was derived using a structure estimation method(3). Particulate-phase thiram may be removed from the air by wet and dry deposition(SRC).
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Shanghai Gokai Industry Co.,Ltd. is?specialized in researching,Website:, developing, manufacturing and distributing PVC foam board,PVC rigid sheet,aluminum composite panel,acrylic sheet. The Company was founded in 2009, has set up factory in Shaoxing, Introduced advanced production equipment and processing technology.The world-leading equipment and rich experience with this process and this material have enable Gokai to create the PVC foam board,acrylic sheet,aluminum composite panel and PVC rigid sheet. that is perfectly matched to the requirements of the market. 
Zhejiang Bangtai Machine Co.,Ltd:
Hejiang Bangtai Machine Co.,Ltd(The initial "Ruian Dongfeng Machine Industrial Co.,Ltd") began later. Now we has acknowledged as National high-tech Businesses. The Nation's Torch-planning Project Dedication to Corporate, certainly one of National city Prize for Progress in Science and Technology. Thank you for hand in hand , walk along with us in the manner. We is constantly adhere the objective of "Customer support, mutual benefit and win-win," we'll sincerely do good to provide best cost with highest quality and Services and to fulfill the individuated for you personally.//http://world wide  
Shaoxing City Jiansheng Machinery Co., Ltd.:
Established in February 2009,Website:, Shaoxing City Jiansheng Machinery Co., Ltd. is a manufacturer specializing in the research, development and production of Trampolines. We are located in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China, with convenient transportation access to Ningbo & Shanghai Port. Our Trampolines are approved TUV/GS, CE EN 71. We are factory with seasoned engineer (over 15 years experience in trampoline field) to guarantee the quality. Our factory covers around 10,000 square meters area, with 50~ 60 employees, monthly production capacity is 8000sets of 6FT trampoline or 4000sets of 16FT trampoline, annual sales 9 million. Trampoline is the unique product we are engaged in, we are confident and able to provide the best trampoline to customers around the world 
Ningbo Judin Special Monofilament Co.,Ltd:
Ingbo Judin Special Monofilament Co., Ltd. evolves from Judin Industrial Co., Ltd. with Hong Kong investment and technology background, happen to be focusing in creating top quality monofilaments for garden, construction, agriculture, breeding and other locations for a number of nations since 2000. We've be a pioneer in neuro-scientific monofilament extrusion industry.The factory area is 10,000-square-meter. to ensure top quality and make sure that volume orders are completed promptly, we've invested heavily in advanced equipment. Monthly production capacity is 100 a lot of trimmer lines. Furthermore, we use top quality recycleables from renowned providers to be able to produce more powerful items, such as Dupont (the united states), Honeywell (the united states), Mitsubishi (Japan), Basf  
Xi'an Landcom Digital Medical Science & Technology Co., Ltd:
Jinan chenghui-shuangda chem co.,ltd:
Jinan chenghuishuangda chemical Co.,Ltd(JNCHSD) began in 1994.In those days,there have been only five reactors as 800 liters within the plant.Today,JNCHSD is really a modern API and intermediates porduction unit,having a 200,000 liter production capacity.The important thing technologies of JNCHSD include:Chirality reaction High-pressure Hydrogenation reaction Low tempereature reaction Ultra low tempreture reaction.There exists a hishly skilled R&D team.So we spend 20% in our annual profit onto it for every year. Till we now have applied aobut 30 patents,Amoung which 12 patents were granted.We have a youthful skilled group of analysits.And also the routine Quality Team conferences for evaluation and continuous improvement from the quality system.Personnel courses on?cGMPs, issues of safe 
Lianyungang Jinkang Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd.:
profile: Lianyungang Jinkang Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd. is active in the research and manufacture of top quality APIs & pharmaceutical intermediates. Our APIs include calcium folinate, Methotrexate, Capecitabine, Etoposide, gemcitabine hydrochloride, trifluridine and Amifostine. Our intermediates include atracurium oxalate, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecine, 3,4-dihydro papaverine, 4'[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]benzoic acidity dihydrochloride, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine and methotrexate disodium salt. We're an ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 licensed company. 
Bona Bio-chem Technology Co., Ltd.:
Bona Bio-chem Technology Co.,Ltd. produceⅠand export pharmaceutical components and intermediates in China, our primaryⅠitems are: Gemcitabine and Intermediates,Mesna and Intermediates, Calcium FolinateⅠpentahydrate and Intermediates, Apprepitant and Intermediates, Blonanserin andⅠIntermediates, Agatroban and Intermediates, Fludarabine, Desogestrel, Entecavir…...ⅠⅠⅠⅠⅠⅠBona is the owner of a plant section of 3000 square meters and 2 professional laboratories inⅠⅠJiangsu, China. Our core competence is goodⅠⅠknowledge of organic synthesis especially choral synthesis techniques, heterocyclicⅠⅠcompounds synthesis etc., making Bona a professional product and serviceⅠⅠSupplier. We are able to offer full support in synthesis of APIs andⅠⅠIntermediates, while our primary clients are API manufacture  
Landmark Nutraceuticals Co., Limited:
Hubei Yuanxin Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd:
Sichuan Biochem-ZX Research Co., Ltd:
Sichuan Biochem-ZX Co., Ltd is situated in Hi-tech Incubator Park,Chengdu,China,founded in 2004 .We are professional being produced of biomaterials, amino acidity types, pharmaceutical recycleables and fine chemicals for that worldwide pharmaceutical companies. The primary items in our company are L- Norvaline,l-norvaline ethyl ester hcl,D-Norvaline, L-Tert-Leucine, Moc-L-tert-Leucine too asaztreonam and its intermediates. The organization is focused on research and development, and was based on national technology department innovation fund and acknowledged as Sichuan high-tech enterprise.Brilliance in our company:Our working group is comprised of professional doctors and masters. There exists a research base and we're focused on product. We've the legitimacy and ability to use cyanide (c 
Dongguan Paihong Industry Co., Ltd. PI:
Paihong?is?the?market?leading?professional?manufacturer?of?hook?and?loop,Website:,?touch?fasteners,?molded?hook,?elastic?band,?stylish?webbing,?ties&?straps.? In?the?meanwhile,?we?also?produced?seamless?knitted?fabric?for?footwear/?bags,?drawcord?for?apparel,?reflective?materials?treatment?for?more?application. Besides,?function?yarns?of?bamboo?charcoal?fiber?and?cool?yarns?are?also?available?products?in?production. We?have?the?experienced?sales?team?for?working?with?brands?via?providing?fast?and?nice?service?to?the?global?market. Prompt?response,?Professional?suggestion?are?all?provided?based?on?customer’s?demand Our?factory?pass?ISO-9001?and?IS0-14001?certification. Our?products?are?with?rigorous?production?that?can?be?reached?brand?customer’s?standard?in?RoHs,?REA 
Cixi Jayu Sealing Materials Co., Ltd UU:
Dongguan CXM Technology Co.,Ltd located in Songshan Lake,Website:, Dongguan, Guangdong, China. Established in 2005, Dongguan CXM Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd is one of the leading hi-tech enterprises brought in by the "Talents Project of the Dragon City"launched by Dongguan Municipal Govemment, as well as named as a Guangdong Quality Service Corporation. CXM Technology is one of the best China motor scooter manufacturers and suppliers with professional factory, from which you can buy and wholesale motor scooter, electric bike electric board, balanced scooter, self balanced car at good price. 
Fanxian Senyuan Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.:
Puyang is really a new-flourishing petrochemical city situated within the hinterland of Zhongyuan oil Field and north of Henan province. Fanxian Senyuan Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd. is situated in Fan County Private Hi-tech Park in Puyang city, having a land of 38,000sqm. Fanxian Senyuan Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. is really a private joint-stock enterprise established in '09, with all of managers and employees, and other social funds as traders and investors. You will find 68 employees in Senyuan, 26 seem to be engineers and specialists. At the moment, Senyuan is really a specialized manufacturer and trader of Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 1,2,4,5-Benzenetetracarboxylic acidity, and the caliber of our items can satisfy the leading standards on the planet.  
Shenzhen Brightchina Industrial Co., Ltd:
Shenzhen BrightChina Industrial Co., Ltd, a subsidiary company of Shenzhen BrightChina Industrial Co., Ltd, partcipates in evelopment, manufacturing and marketing of chemicals and new materials and commits in new synthesis technology of polylactide(PLA) and Polycaprolactone(PCL) and industrialization of these biodegradale materials. The organization received the fourth Excellent Award for brand new Records of Businesses in Shenzhen in 2005. 
Wuhan Yuancheng Gongchuang Tech Co., Ltd: