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Carbon nanotubes ( CASNO:1333-86-4 )

Identification and Related Records
Name:
Carbon nanotubes
CAS Registry number:
1333-86-4
Synonyms:
Acetylene black
lamp black
Carbonnanotubesmultiwalled
Fullerene carbon soot (contains 2-20% C60/C70 and
Carbonanotubesmultiwalled
Carbonsoot
Carbon black
Carbon
EINECS(EC#):
215-609-9
Molecular Weight:
12.01
Inchi:
InChI=1/C
Canonical SMILES:
C
Chemical and Physical Properties
Appearance:
rod
Density:
~1.7 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Melting Point:
3550 °C(lit.)
Boiling Point:
500-600 °C(lit.)
Vapour:
205000mmHg at 25°C
Flash Point:
>230 °F
Water:
Insoluble
Solubilities:
Insoluble in water
Color/Form:
Fine black powder
Black solid
Stability:
Stable. Combustible.
Storage temp:
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials.
Computed Properties:
Molecular Weight:16.04246 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:CH4
XLogP3-AA:0.6
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:0
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:16.0313
MonoIsotopic Mass:16.0313
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:1
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1
Safety and Handling
Hazard Codes:
Xi:刺激性物质‖F;
Risk Statements:
R36/37/38
Safety Statements:
S26
HazardClass:
4.1
Safety:
Hazard Codes :?FlammableF,IrritantXi,HarmfulXn
Risk Statements : 36/37-18-11-40
R36/37:? Irritating to eyes and respiratory system?
R18:? In use may form flammable/explosive vapor-air mixture?
R11:? Highly Flammable?
R40:? Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
Safety Statements : 26-36-24/25-22
S26:? In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice?
S36:? Wear suitable protective clothing?
S24/25:? Avoid contact with skin and eyes?
S22:? Do not breathe dust
RIDADR : UN 1325 4.1/PG 3
WGK Germany : 3?
HazardClass : 4.1
PackingGroup : III
RTECS : FF5250100
PackingGroup:
III
Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations:
May cause skin and respiratory irritation.
As superficial foreign bodies, carbon black ... may be slightly irritating mechanically and may cause discoloration of lids and conjunctivae, but they are chemically inert.
Cleanup Methods:
Electroflotation coagulation separation of carbon black from acetylene production wastewater was studied.
If carbon black is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken: Remove all ignition sources. Ventilate area of spill or leak. Carbon black dust may be collected by vacuuming with an appropriate high efficiency filtration system or by using wet methods; it should then be placed in an appropriate container. If a vaccum system is used, there should be no sources of ignition in the vicinity of the spill, and flashback prevention devices should be provided.
/SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Land spill - Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents.
Environmental considerations: Water spill Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Environmental Considerations: Air spill Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Transport:
UN 1361
Fire Fighting Procedures:
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped Use water in flooding quantities as fog Solid streams of water may spread fire Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water Apply water from as far a distance as possible Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide
Fire Potential:
SLIGHT, WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT OR FLAME.
Carbon black can be ignited in the presence of open flames, and burns slowly with production of carbon monoxide.
Formulations/Preparations:
DEPENDING ON THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE THERE ARE VARIATIONS IN THE CHEM COMPOSITION OF CARBON BLACK. IT CONTAINS 88-99.5% OF CARBON; 0.3-11% OF OXYGEN; 0.1-1% OF HYDROGEN; UP TO 1% INORG MATERIALS; SMALL AMT OF TARRY MATTER AND TRACES OF SULFUR.
FORMS: POWDER; PELLETS; PASTES. GRADES: (ASTM) /AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING & MATERIALS/ N660, N550, N330, N110, N220, N761, N762, N601, 5300 (CHANNEL), 5301.
Grades: HAF (high abrasion furnace), FEF (fast extrusion furnace), SRF (semireinforcing furnace), HMF (high modules furnace), GPF (general purpose furnace), SAF (super abrasion furnace), ISAF (intermediate abrasion furnace), FF (fine furnace), XCF (electrically conductive furnace), APF (all-purpose furnace), FT (fine thermal), MT (medium thermal), MT-NS-FF (medium thermal, non-staining, free flowing)
Exposure Standards and Regulations:
Carbon black, channel process is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
Reactivities and Incompatibilities:
Strong oxidizers such as chlorates, bromates, and nitrates.
Other Preventative Measures:
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
... SUBSTITUTION OF LESS IRRITATING SUBSTANCES ... REDESIGN OF OPERATIONS ... PREVENT CONTACT, PROVISION OF A PHYSICAL BARRIER AGAINST CONTACT, PROPER WASHING FACILITIES, WORK CLOTHING AND STORAGE FACILITIES, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, AND BARRIER CREAMS. MEDICAL CONTROL ...
The employer shall ensure that respirators are adequately maintained, and stored in a dust free condition and that employees are instructed and drilled at least annually in the proper use, fit, and testing for leakage of respirators assigned to them. ... The employer shall ensure that, at the conclusion of the workshift, all clothing is removed only in change rooms. ... And that contaminated protective clothing that is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of is placed in a closed container in the change room.
The employer shall ensure that each employee ... /exposed/ to carbon black is informed of the hazards and relevant symptoms of exposure to carbon black. Workers shall be advised that exposure to carbon black may cause transient or permanent lung damage or skin irritation, and that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in preparation pose a carcinogenic risk.
Eating, preparing, storing, or the dispensing of food (including vending machines) shall be prohibited in all work areas where exposures to carbon black may occur. Smoking shall be prohibited in all the work areas where there is occupational exposure to carbon black. Employees who handle carbon black or who work in an area where they are exposed to carbon black shall be instructed to wash their hands with soap or skin cleaners and water before using toilet facilities, drinking, eating, or smoking and to shower or bathe using soap or other skin cleansers at the end of each workshift before leaving the work premises. The employer shall provide change rooms equipped with shower facilities, and separate storage facilities for street clothes and for protective clothing and equipment. The change rooms shall be in a nonexposure area.
The worker should wash daily at the end of each work shift, and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, etc.
Clothing which is contaminated with carbon black should be removed immediately and placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of carbon black from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or cleaned, the person performing the operation should be informed of carbon black's hazardous properties. Reusable clothing and equipment should be checked for residual contamination before reuse or storage.
Workers who handle carbon black should wash their faces, hands, and forearms thoroughly with soap and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away Keep material out of water sources and sewers Build dikes to contain flow as necessary Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard Use water spray to knock-down vapors
Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Wear appropriate chemical protective gloves, boots and goggles. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: Wastewater from contaminant suppression, cleaning of protective clothing/equipment, or contaminated sites should be contained and evaluated for subject chemical or decomposition product concentrations. Concentrations shall be lower than applicable environmental discharge or disposal criteria. Alternatively, pretreatment and/or discharge to a POTW is acceptable only after review by the governing authority. Due consideration shall be given to remediation worker exposure (inhalation, dermal and ingestion) as well as fate during treatment, transfer and disposal. If it is not practicable to manage the chemical in this fashion, it must meet Hazardous Material Criteria for disposal.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... Clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Protective Equipment and Clothing:
The employer shall provide and shall require employees working with carbon black to wear appropriate full body clothing, with elastic cuffs at the wrists and ankles, gloves, and shoes, which are resistant to penetration by carbon black to minimize skin contact with carbon black. ... Chemical safety glasses shall be provided to employees experiencing eye irritation during exposure.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 17.5 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 5 Any quarter-mask respirator.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 35 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 10 Any particulate respirator equipped with an N95, R95, or P95 filter (including N95, R95, and P95 filtering facepieces) except quarter-mask respirators. The following filters may also be used: N99, R99, P99, N100, R100, P100. APF = 10 Any supplied-air respirator.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 87.5 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 25 Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. APF = 25 Any powered air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 175 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 50 Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter. APF = 50 Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and a high-efficiency particulate filter. APF = 50 Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. APF = 50 Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 1750 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 1000 Any supplied-air respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 10,000 Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. APF = 10,000 Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape conditions: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 50 Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter./Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus In presence of polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons: NIOSH.
Respirator Recommendations: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 10,000 Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. APF = 10,000 Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape conditions: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 50 Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter./Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... Gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Specification:
? Carbon black (CAS NO.1333-86-4), its Synonyms are D&C Black No. 2 ; Pigment black 6 ; Pigment black 7 ; Acetylene black ; Animal bone charcoal ; Aroflow ; Arogen ; Arotone ; Arovel ; Arrow ; Atlantic ; Black Kosmos 33 ; Black pearls .
Disposal Methods:
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Use and Manufacturing
Use and Manufacturing:
Methods of Manufacturing

QUASI-GRAPHITIC FORM OF CARBON OF SMALL PARTICLE SIZE. BY TERM CARBON BLACK SEVERAL FORMS OF ARTIFICIALLY PREPD CARBON OR CHARCOAL ARE DESIGNATED EG: 1. ANIMAL CHARCOAL OBTAINED BY CHARRING BONES, MEAT, BLOOD, ETC; 2. GAS BLACK: FURNACE BLACK; CHANNEL BLACK: OBTAINED BY INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION OF NATURAL GAS ... 3. LAMP BLACK, OBTAINED BY BURNING VARIOUS FATS, OILS, RESIN, ETC, UNDER SUITABLE CONDITIONS; 4. ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ... PREPD FROM WOOD AND VEGETABLES.
A finely divided form of carbon, practically all of which is made by burning vaporized heavy-oil fractions in a furnace with 50% of the air required for complete combustion (partial oxidation). This type is also called furnace black. Carbon black can also be made from methane or natural gas by cracking (thermal black) or direct combustion (channel black), but these methods are virtually obsolete. All types are characterized by extremely fine particle size, which accounts for their reinforcing and pigmenting effectiveness.
The Tosco II process pyrolysis research study was conceived to develop process equipment and to maximize carbon black production and quality. ... Chopped tires are fed into a rotary drum with hot ceramic balls at 480-549 deg C in a reducing atmosphere. The rubber pyrolyzes and forms a solid residue, some oil vapor, and off-gases. ... A trommel screen separates the fine carbon black from the ceramic balls. The carbon is pelletized after steel, fiber glass, and other contaminants have been removed. ... The pilot plant process was designed to handle 15 tons of tires per day, and generally one ton of tires produced ... 1270-1540 kg of carbon black. The types of blacks and other related contents in the residue from tire pyrolysis ... are unpredictable. However, carbon blacks are carefully chosen to achieve specific properties in compounded rubbers. Thus, the diverse and unpredicatable residue mixture is useful only as a low grade filler for mechanical goods and is unsuitable as a carbon black source.
Carbon black can be produced by four basic manufacturing processes; three of which employ partial oxidation and one which utilizes a cracking type process. The partial oxidation processes are the channel, gas furnace, and oil furnace while the so called thermal process is a cracking type process
/Furnace black process/ The feedstock is injected, usually as an atomized spray, into a high-temperature zone of high energy density which is achieved by burning a fuel (natural gas or oil) with air. The oxygen, which is in excess with respect to the fuel, is not sufficient for complete combustion of the feedstock, the majority of which is therefore pyrolyzed to form carbon black at 1200-1900 deg C. The reaction mixture is them quenched with water and further cooled in heat exchangers, and the carbon black is collected from the tail gas by a filter system.
In the gas black process, the feedstock is partially vaporized. The residual oil is continuously withdrawn. The oil vapor is transported to the production apparatus by a combustible carrier gas (e.g., hydrogen, coke oven gas, or methane). Air may be added to the oil-gas mixture for the manufacture of very small particle size carbon black. Although this process is not as flexible as the furnace black process, various grades of gas black can be made by varying the relative amounts of carrier gas, oil, and air. The carbon black properties are also influenced by the type of burners used.
The lamp black process is only partially continuous. The feedstock - oil with a high aromatic hydrocarbon content - is burned in flat steel vessels up to 1.5 m in diameter. The oil is continuously introduced into the vessel to keep a constant feedstock level. The off-gas containing carbon black is sucked into a conical exhaust pipe, which is coated with a ceramic inner liner and leads to the cooling and collecting system. The properties of the carbon black can be influenced to some extent by variation of the distance between the vessel and the exhaust and the amount of air sucked into the apparatus.
The thermal black process ... is still used for the production of coarse carbon blacks (nonreinforcing carbon blacks) for special applications in the rubber industry. ... A thermal black plant consists of two furnaces, which are used in alternate heating and production periods of about 5-min duration. Each of the cylindrical furnaces (4 m in diameter and 6 m high) contains a network of heat-resistant bricks. They are heated with natural gas and air. At a temperature of about 1400 deg C, the air is switched off and only feedstock is introduced for pyrolysis. Since this reaction is endothermic, the temperature falls. At about 900 deg C, a new heating period is necessary. The products leaving the furnace, carbon black and nearly pure hydrogen, are cooled by injecting water into an ascending channel. The carbon black is separated in the collecting system.
Acetylene black process: ... Acetylene or acetylene-containing gases are fed into a preheated, cylindrical reactor with a ceramic inner liner. Once ignited, the reaction is maintained by the decomposition heat that is evolved. The carbon black is collected in settling chambers and cyclones.
PRODUCT PROFILE: Carbon Black. Carbon black is derived from the incomplete combustion of natural gas or petroleum oil, primarily residual heavy fuel oil from petroleum refining, coal tar distillation and ethylene production. It is typically produced by the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon liquids or gases at temperatures above 2000 deg F. Based upon variations in particle size, structure and purity, and the method of production, carbon black can be classified as furnace black, lampblack, bone black, channel black, acetylene and thermal black. Furnace blacks dominate at about 90% of global output with thermal blacks making up the remainder. Lampblack, bone black and acetylene black are specialty products.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon Black. Carbon black is derived from the incomplete combustion of petroleum feedstocks, mainly decant oil obtained from fluid catalytic cracking of gasoils to produce gasoline; ethylene tar or ethylene cracker residue from the steam cracking of naphtha/gasoil; and raw coal tar oil, creosote and anthracene oil from coal coking. The furnace black process dominates, accounting for 98% of global production, because it offers higher efficiency and precise control over the combustion parameters. Thermal black and acetylene black account for most of the remainder.
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: The furnace black process is the most common large-scale method to produce carbon black. It involves the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon liquids or gases at high temperatures.
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon black: Carbon black is most commonly produced by the furnace black process. Oil-furnace carbon black accounts for about 95% of all carbon black produced worldwide ... . Furnace black is produced through the controlled thermal decomposition and partial combustion of heavy aromatic oils.
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: Over 95% of world carbon black production is based on the furnace black process, which involves the controlled thermal decomposition and partial combustion of heavy residual fuel oil in the presence of natural gas.
U.S. Exports

(1972) 5.05X10+10 G
(1975) 4.0X10+10 G
(1985) 3.41X10+10 g (est)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Exports: 2003: 393 million pounds; 2004: 391 million pounds
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Exports: 2006: 326 million pounds; 2007: 351 million pounds
U.S. Imports

(1972) 5.22X10+8 G
(1975) 1.50X10+10 G
(1985) 6.81X10+10 g (est)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Imports: 2003: 631 million pounds; 2004: 439 million pounds
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Imports: 2006: 343 million pounds; 2007: 363 million pounds
U.S. Production

(1972) 1.45X10+12 G
(1975) 1.25X10+12 G (EXCLUDING CHANNEL PROCESS)
(1985) 1.17X10+12 g
(1991) 3.40x10+9 lbs
(1990) 2.87 billion lb
(1991) 2.72 billion lb
(1992) 3.02 billion lb
(1993) 3.22 billion lb
Carbon black is listed as a High Production Volume (HPV) chemical (65FR81686). Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U.S. in >1 million pounds in 1990 and/or 1994. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule. (IUR) (40 CFR part 710 subpart B; 51FR21438).
Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule. Year Production Range (pounds) 1986 >10 million - 50 million 1990 >1 million - 10 million 1994 >500 million - 1 billion 1998 >10 thousand - 500 thousand 2002 >500 thousand - 1 million
PRODUCT PROFILE: Carbon black. European Union production capacity for carbon black in 2002 European Union production capacity for carbon black in 2002 (thousand tonnes/year)Country Capacity France 245 Germany 275 Italy 235 Netherlands 165 Portugal 35 Spain 60 Sweden 40 UK 185
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. European production capacity for carbon black in 2005 European production capacity for carbon black in 2005 (thousand tonnes/year)Country Capacity Czech Republic 100 France 245 Germany 291 Hungary 65 Italy 245 Netherlands 165 Poland 40 Portugal 35 Russia 620 Spain 60 Sweden 40 UK 70 Other 284 TOTAL 2,335
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. European production capacity for carbon black in 2008 European production capacity for carbon black in 2008 (thousand tonnes/year)Country Capacity Czech Republic 100 France 245 Germany 291 Hungary 100 Italy 245 Netherlands 165 Poland 40 Russia 650 Spain 60 Sweden 40 UK 70 Other 209 TOTAL 2,250
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Production Capacity: 1988: 3,220 million pounds/year
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Production Capacity: 1991: 3,350 million pounds/year
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Production Capacity: 2005: 4,075 million pounds/year
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. US Production Capacity: 2008: 3,955 million pounds/year
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: Global carbon black production capacity in 2002 Global carbon black capacity in 2002 (thousand tonnes/year)Country Capacity North America - Canada 247 - Mexico 95 - USA 2,210 South America - Argentina 80 - Brazil 410 - Colombia 45 - Venezuela 65 Western Europe - Belgium 6 - France 420 - Germany 312 - Italy 221 - Netherlands 155 - Portugal 35 - Spain 95 - Sweden 45 - UK 130 Eastern Europe - Czech Republic 120 - Hungary 82 - Poland 55 Mideast/Africa - Egypt 110 - South Africa 65 Asia/Pacific - Australia 75 - China 935 - India 435 - Indonesia 195 - Japan 786 - Malaysia 100 - Philippines 25 - Singapore 12 - South Korea 613 - Taiwan 100 - Thailand 210
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: Global carbon black production capacity in 2004 Global carbon black capacity in 2004 (thousand tonnes/year)Country Capacity North America - Canada 265 - Mexico 120 - USA 1,885 South America - Argentina 80 - Brazil 310 - Colombia 60 - Venezuela 70 Western Europe - Belgium 6 - Czech Republic 100 - France 245 - Germany 290 - Hungary 65 - Italy 245 - Netherlands 155 - Portugal 35 - Spain 60 - Sweden 45 - UK 175 Eastern Europe - Croatia 35 - Poland 40 - Romania 35 - Russia & Ukraine 850 Mideast/Africa - Egypt 170 - Iran 80 - South Africa 65 - Turkey 40 Asia/Pacific - Australia 90 - China 1,400 - India 550 - Indonesia 120 - Japan 712 - Malaysia 100 - Singapore 12 - South Korea 530 - Taiwan 100 - Thailand 285
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: Global carbon black production capacity in 2006 Global carbon black capacity in 2006 (thousand tonnes/year)Country Capacity North America - Canada 265 - Mexico 120 - USA 1,800 South America - Argentina 80 - Brazil 360 - Colombia 60 - Venezuela 70 Western Europe - France 245 - Germany 290 - Italy 245 - Netherlands 155 - Portugal 35 - Spain 60 - Sweden 45 - UK 175 Central and Eastern Europe - Croatia 35 - Czech Republic 100 - Hungary 65 - Poland 40 - Russia & Ukraine 850 Mideast/Africa - Egypt 200 - Iran 80 - South Africa 65 - Turkey 40 Asia/Pacific - Australia 45 - China 1,800 - India 575 - Indonesia 150 - Japan 712 - Malaysia 135 - South Korea 530 - Taiwan 100 - Thailand 360
Consumption Patterns

94% IS USED IN ELASTOMERS (OF WHICH 12% IS USED IN MASTERBATCHED STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER ELASTOMERS); 3% IS USED IN PAINT & PRINTING INKS; AND 3% IS USED IN OTHER APPLICATIONS, INCL PAPER (1973)
Tires, 65%; Other fabricated rubber products, 25%; Colorant and filler for plastics, inks, etc 10% (1985)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: Rubber, 88% (tires, 68%; industrial rubber products, 20%); miscellaneous non-rubber (inks, paints, plastics, etc), 9%; exports, 3%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: End-use Pattern for carbon black in 1991 Carbon black: End-use pattern (%) for carbon black in 1991End-use Percent Rubber 84 - Tires, tubes and tread - 66 - Industrial rubber products - 18 Miscellaneous non-rubber (paints, plastics, paper, ink) 9 Exports 7
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: End-use Pattern for carbon black in 2005 Carbon black: End-use pattern (%) for carbon black in 2005End-use Percent Tires and tire treads 70 Belts, hoses and other automotive products 10 Industrial rubber products 9 Plastics 5 Inks 4 Miscellaneous, including paint and paper 2
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: End-use Pattern for carbon black in 2008 Carbon black: End-use pattern (%) for carbon black in 20085End-use Percent Tires and tire treads 70 Belts, hoses and other automotive products 10 Industrial rubber products 9 Plastics 5 Inks 4 Miscellaneous, including paint and paper 2
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: Demand: 1987: 2,750 million pounds; 1988: 2,850 million pounds; 1992: 3,100 million pounds /projected/ (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 175 million pounds in 1987)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: Demand: 1990: 2,868 million pounds; 1991: 2,700 million pounds; 1995: 3,100 million pounds /projected/ (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 193.8 million pounds in 1990)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: US Demand: 2003: 3,465 million pounds; 2004: 3,540 million pounds; 2008: 3,830 million pounds, projected
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black: US Demand: 2006: 3.474 billion pounds; 2007: 3.506 billion pounds; 2011: 3.3 billion pounds, projected
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. European carbon black demand in 2005 European carbon black demand in 2005 (thousand tonnes/year)Country Demand Czech Republic 77 France 256 Germany 419 Italy 236 Netherlands 50 Poland 107 Russia 362 Spain 193 UK 134 Other 413 TOTAL 2,335
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. Supply/Demand. Global demand grew by 4% in 2005 to 8.9 million tonnes and capacity utilization was strong at nearly 91% of nameplate (about 98% of effective capacity). Europe accounted for 25% of world demand in 2005, equal to 2.2 million tonnes. Demand in European Union (EU) countries grew 2.1% in 2005, although production fell 6% based on higher imports. Suppliers have been rationalizing capacity in the EU in recent years, and this trend continued in 2005 when Columbian Chemicals closed a line in the UK. One bright spot is Poland, where demand grew 9%/year over the last decade. Russia, the world's fourth-largest producer, has emerged as the world's largest volume exporter.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon black. Supply/Demand. Global demand grew by an unusually strong 7% in 2007 to 10 million tonnes, the sixth consecutive year of solid growth, primarily driven by China, where demand grew by nearly 19%/year from 2002-2007. Capacity utilization remained at 84-86% from 2003 to 2007, despite 2.6 million tonnes of new capacity. The /European Union/ accounted for 18% of world demand in 2007, or 1.8 million tonnes. Demand in the /European Union/ grew by 1.4% in 2002-2007, with strong growth in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland offsetting falls in Spain and the UK, and flat growth in Germany and France. Suppliers rationalized capacity in this period due to increased lower-cost imports from Egypt, Russia and Ukraine and this will continue. Eastern Europe, mainly Russia and Ukraine, accounted for 5% of world demand in 2007, or 548,000 tonnes/year, and demand grew by 5.8% in 2002-2007 mainly due to increased tire production in Russia. Russia has emerged as the world's largest exporter of carbon black.
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: Global Demand: 2002: 7.7 million tonnes. Tires: 70%; Pigments: 11%; Mechanical rubber products: 10%; Industrial rubber products: 9%.
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: Global Demand: 2004: 8.1 million tonnes. Regional Demand: Europe: 25%; North America: 23%; Other Asia: 18%; China: 15%; Japan: 11%; Rest of the world: 8%.
PRODUCT FOCUS: Carbon Black: Global Demand: 2006: 9.4 million tonnes. Regional Demand: North America: 20%; European Union: 19%; China: 19%; Other Asia: 17%; Japan: 10%; South America: 6%; Other: 9%.
Usage:
Used as a pigment for rubber tires, for printing, stenciling & drawing inks, for leather, stove polish, phonograph records, for electrical insulating apparatus.
Sampling Procedures:
A known volume of air is drawn through a glass fiber filter followed by a 0.8 um pore size silver membrane filter to collect carbon black particles and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The original method recommended a polyvinyl chloride filter, but the glass fiber and silver membrane filters have been substituted to allow for greater accuracy in the subsequent determination of the cyclohexane extractable fraction.
To collect carbon black, a personal sampler pump is used to pull air through a silver membrane filter preceded by a glass fiber filter. The filter holder is held together by tape or a shrinkable band. If the filter holder is not tightened snugly, the contaminant will leak around the filter. A piece of flexible tubing is used to connect the filter holder to the pump. Sample at a flow rate of 1-2 liters/min. After sampling, remove small plugs to seal filter cassettes.
A sampling survey involving workers from 7 carbon black producers was initiated in late 1979. Acceptable samples (1546 total dust and 387 respirable dust) were collected from closed face filter cassettes worn by carbon black workers performing normal work operations. A 1 cm cyclone separator was employed for respirable dust sampling. Characterization of the particulate exposures to workers was provided for the various areas of employment and specific jobs within these areas.
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity:
Uptake and retention of carbon black particles in lung macrophages have been observed following inhalation ... as well as following injection into the cerebral ventricles of rats ... or into the bladder wall of rats. ... Carbon black particles perfused into the abdominal aorta of rabbits were observed in the endothelial cells of the vessel.
Particles were found in phagocytic cells in the proximal convoluted tubules and glomeruli of the kidneys in mice, together with amyloidosis and renal fibrosis. It was later reported that carbon black particles also accumulated in the lungs of exposed monkeys (total duration of exposure, 5784 hr) ...
Mice (for their lifespan), guinea pigs, and monkeys (up to 13,000 total hr) were exposed to 1.6 mg/cu m of various types of furnace blacks for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk. ... Carbon black was found scattered in lung tissue, both free-lying and inside macrophages (scavenger cells). In mice, the black was diffuse and finely distributed, while monkeys progressively developed diffusely distributed areas of nodularity where the black was concentrated. ... Carbon black was observed to infiltrate the pulmonary lymph nodes, and was also present in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of exposed animals.
The effect of continuous exposure to inert carbonaceous particles on the pulmonary clearance of inhaled diesel tracer particles was studied in male Fischer 344 rats. Submicron carbon black particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 0.22 um and having a size distribution similar to those particles from a GM 5.7 liter diesel engine were successfully generated and admin to test animals at a nominal concn of 6 mg/cu m for 20 hr/day, 7 day/wk, for periods lasting 1 to 11 wk. Immediately after the carbon black exposure, test animals were admin (14)C tagged diesel particles for 45 min in a nose only chamber. The pulmonary retention of inhaled radioactive tracer particles was determined at preselected time intervals. Based upon the data collected up to six months post exposure, prolonged exposure to carbon black particles exhibits the same inhibitory effect on pulmonary clearance as prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust with a comparable particulate dose. This observation, coupled with the observation that continuous exposure to nitrogen oxide at 2 ppm produced no significant incr on the pulmonary retention of radioactive diesel test particles, indicates that the accumulation of inert carbonaceous material is the predominant cause of impaired lung clearance.
Carbon black aerosols were used as a probe of the pulmonary retention and clearance of submicron particles. Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed for 20 hr/day, 7 days/wk for 1, 3, or 6 wk to either 7 + or - 2 mg/cu m carbon black in filtered air. The submicron aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter, 0.24 um) was generated with a dust feed cyclone system. Lung and hilar lymph node particle burdens were detn immediately following the exposure and at preselected intervals (1, 7, 14, 50, 80, 141, 210, and 365 days) postexposure. After 1, 3, and 6 wk exposures the lung burdens were 1.1 + or - 0.1, 3.5 + or - 0.2, and 5.9 + or - 0.1 mg, respectively. 1 yr after 1, 3, or 6 wk exposure, 8%, 46%, and 61% of the initial lung burden remained in the lungs. Initially, the hilar lymph nodes contained 0.2%, 0.9%, and 2.0% of the lung burdens in the 3 exposure groups, respectively. At 1 yr postexposure, particle translocation from the lung led to a rise in lymph node burdens to 1%, 21%, and 27% of the initial lung burden. Retention of carbon black in the lung and lymph nodes combined was 9%, 67%, and 89%, respectively. Lung clearance was modeled as a compartmental system consisting of four lung compartments and a regional lymph node compartment. For carbon black, deposition efficiency in the alveolar region was lower than that for diesel exhaust particles and there was earlier transport of particles to the regional lymph nodes. When lung burdens reached 0.8 mg, lung clearance was decreased by 50% and lymphatic transport of insoluble particles was increased. [Strom KA et al; J Toxicol Environ Health 26 (2): 183-202 (1989)] PubMed Abstract
Groups of male F344/N rats were exposed to (14)C-1-nitropyrene as a pure aerosol (2 mg/cu m) or adsorbed on carbon black particles. Labeled 4,5,9,10-(14)C-1-nitropyrene was mixed with unlabeled 1-nitropyrene for a specific activity of 5 mCi/g, and the exposure concn was 1.25 mg 1-nitropyrene/cu m coated on 85.0 mg carbon black/cu m. Total (14)C retained in the lung was greater at all times from 0.5 hr to 30 days after exposure to 1-nitropyrene adsorbed to carbon black particles than after exposure to pure 1-nitropyrene. The fraction of total (14)C in lung bound to carbon black particles decreased steadily with time after exposure, indicating in vivo removal of 1-nitropyrene from the particles. At 0.5 hr exposure, the fraction of estimated deposited (14)C that was covalently bound to lung macromolecules was twofold greater for 1-nitropyrene adsorbed on carbon black (0.06 nmol equivalents) than for pure 1-nitropyrene. Covalently bound (14)C in lungs incr with time after exposure to 1-nitropyrene adsorbed to carbon black, reaching levels of approx 1% of the deposited radioactivity at 7 to 30 days after exposure, whereas levels of covalently bound (14)C declined with time after exposure to pure 1-nitropyrene. Thus, at 30 days after exposure, the amount of (14)C covalently bound to lung macromolecules (0.25 nmol equivalents) was approx 10 fold greater in rats that inhaled (14)C adsorbed carbon black particles. [Wolff RK et al; J Toxicol Environ Health 26 (2): 309-25 (1989)] PubMed Abstract
It has been demonstrated that ultrafine particles (UFPs) are able to translocate from the lung into the systemic circulation. Precise mechanisms of the anatomical translocation (crossing the air-blood barrier) of inhaled UFPs at the alveolar wall are not fully understood. This study ... examined the translocation pathway of the intratracheally instilled ultrafine carbon black (UFCB) from the lung into the blood circulation in mouse. Electron microscopy demonstrated accumulation of intratracheally instilled UFCB in the large-sized gaps developing between the cytoplasmic processes of the alveolar epithelial cells, possibly as a result of shrinkage of cytoplasm, by receiving stimulus/signals generated and released following UFCB attachment on the alveolar epithelial cells. Occasional penetration of the accumulated UFCB into the alveolar basement membrane, exposing to the air space, was observed at the gap. These results suggest that inhaled UFPs may, in part, pass the air-blood barrier through the large-sized gap formed between the alveolar epithelial cells. [Shimada A et al; Toxicol Pathol 34 (7): 949-57 (2006)] PubMed Abstract
There are many studies on the deposition and retention kinetics of inhaled carbon particles following intratracheal instillation or inhalation in rodents. In general, all rodent species investigated show evidence of rapid clearance of inhaled carbon particles when exposure concentrations did not result in impaired clearance resulting in accumulation of particles in the lung (ie, lung overload). The experimental studies of ultrafine particles of carbon black have shown that rodents experience dose-dependent impairment of alveolar macrophage-mediated clearance, which occurs at lower mass doses of ultrafine particles than with larger particles. Overloading has been observed in rats, mice and hamsters exposed to carbon black. Hamsters appear to exhibit the most efficient clearance of carbon black particles compared with rats and mice. Adverse lung responses to inhaled carbon black (pulmonary inflammation and epithelial injury) increase significantly with increasing retained lung dose of carbon black particles. Fine and ultrafine carbon black particles can translocate beyond the lungs to other organs.
In mice and rats exposed to carbon black [type unspecified; details of exposure not reported], accumulations in the oral mucosa, with development of epithelial atrophy, hyperkeratosis, desquamation of keratinous masses and inflammatory reactions, were observed. Carbon black particles were found in the endothelium and lumen of blood vessels.
The deposition pattern of carbon black particles depends on the particle size (aerodynamic or thermodynamic) and on the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the host. The deposition fraction of carbon black influences the dose to a given region of the respiratory tract. Several studies describe the retention of carbon black in the respiratory tract of exposed workers, as well as the health effects of these exposures. For example, lung tissues from workers in carbon black factories contain deposits of carbon black. Lung diseases or conditions may influence the deposition and retention of particles such as carbon black. For instance, asthmatics had a higher total deposition of ultrafine carbon particles in the respiratory tract compared with healthy individuals. The amount of carbon particles deposited can also increase with increasing minute ventilation, for instance in individuals taking exercise or during heavy physical labor. High retained mass lung burdens and decreased lung clearance have been observed in coal miners.
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