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Sodium hydroxide ( CASNO:1310-73-2 )
Identification and Related Records
- Sodium hydroxide
- CAS Registry number:
- Sodiumhydroxide (Na(OH))
42: PN: WO2009134942 SEQID: 42 claimed sequence
E 33 (degreasing agent)
Caustic soda flake96%
Sodium Hydroxide NAOH (flake.solid)
Caustic soda 96% 99%
caustic soda solid
caustic soda (Sodium Hydroxide)
Sodium hydroxide, solid
sell caustic soda
Sodium hydroxide (Na(OH))
CAUSTIC SODA 99% (FLAKES)
caustic soda flakes
Caustic Soda Flakes/Pearls
Sulfurous acid, disodium salt
caustic soda pearls
Sodiumhydroxide (Na(OH)) (Email to email@example.com)
caustic soda flakes and pearls
Caustic Soda flakes,sodium hydroxide
caustic soda NaOH
Caustic soda flakes&pearls
Caustic soda both flakes and pearl
- Molecular Formula:
- Molecular Weight:
- Canonical SMILES:
Chemical and Physical Properties
- odourless white solid (often sold as pellets)
- Melting Point:
- 318 oC
- Boiling Point:
- 1390 oC
- Refractive Index:
- Flash Point:
- 1 g dissolves in 0.9 ml water, 0.3 ml boiling water; 1 g dissolves in 7.2 ml absolute alcohol, 4.2 ml methanol; also sol in glycerol
- White, othogonal crystals
Colorless to white ... solid (flakes, beads, granular form).
- Storage temp:
- Spectral properties:
- INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.3576
- Computed Properties:
- Molecular Weight:39.99711 [g/mol]
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Topological Polar Surface Area:1
Heavy Atom Count:2
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2
Safety and Handling
- Hazard Codes:
- C: Corrosive;
- Risk Statements:
- Safety Statements:
- Hazard Codes: C,Xi
Risk Statements: 36/38-35-34
36/38:? Irritating to eyes and skin?
35:? Causes severe burns
34:? Causes burns
Safety Statements: 26-45-37/39-24/25-36/37/39
26:? In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice?
45:? In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)?
37/39:? Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection?
24/25:? Avoid contact with skin and eyes?
36/37/39:? Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
RIDADR: UN 1824 8/PG 2
- Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
- Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations:
- Liquid or solid sodium hydroxide is a severe skin irritant. It causes second and third degree burns on short contact and is very injurious to the eyes.
HAZARD WARNING: The irritating nature of the aerosol on the mucous membranes is presumed to be adequate warning to maintain air concn at tolerable levels.
A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. ... Inhalation of the dust or concentrated mist can cause damage to the upper respiratory tract and to lung tissue, depending on the severity of the exposure.
- Cleanup Methods:
- On/in soil (solid): Construct barriers to convert or divert to impervious surface. Promptly shovel into steel containers.
Soil, Liquid: Absorb small amounts of spill with sand, vermiculite or other inert absorbant material; Shovel into steel containers. May also remove material with vacuum equipment.
Land spill of sodium hydroxide: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash of cement powder. Neutralize with vinegar or other dilute acid; Water spill: Neutralize with dilute acid or removable strong acid; Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. /Liquid/
Land spill of sodium hydroxide: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water; Water spill: Neutralize with dilute acid to remove strong acid. /Solid/
Perlite and Cellosive WP3H (hydroxyethyl cellulose) have been tested and recommended for vapor suppression and/or containment of 50% sodium hydroxide solutions.
Keep water away from release. Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Prompt cleanup and removal are necessary. Shovel into suitable dry container. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
- UN 1823
- Fire Fighting Procedures:
- Use only flooding quantities of water as spray. DO NOT use halogenated extinguishing agents. Use carbon dioxide or suitable dry chemical extinguisher.
Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire.
- Grades: commercial; ground; flake; beads; Food Chemical Codex; granulated (60% and 76% Na2O); rayon (low in iron, copper, and manganese); purified by alcohol (sticks, lumps, and drops); reagent; highest purity: CP, USP.
WHEN KEPT IN TIGHT CONTAINERS, THE USUAL GRADES CONTAIN 97-98% SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
Anhydrous (Rayon Grade) 99.0% minimum; Rayon Grade: 50% liquid; Regular Grade: 50% liquid, 47.7-51% purity.
Lewis - Red Devil Lye
Drano crystals contain 54.2% sodium hydroxide; Clinitest tablets contain 232.5 mg sodium hydroxide /From table/
- DOT Emergency Guidelines:
- /GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Sodium hydroxide, bead; Sodium hydroxide, dry; Sodium hydroxide, flake; Sodium hydroxide, granular; Sodium hydroxide, solid; Sodium hydroxide solution/
- Exposure Standards and Regulations:
- Sodium hydroxide (not to exceed 1%) is a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption, as long as 1) the quantity of the substance added to food does not exceed the amount reasonably required to accomplish its intended physical, nutritive, or other technical effect in food, and 2) any substance intended for use in or on food is of appropriate food grade and is prepared and handled as a food ingredient.
- Reactivities and Incompatibilities:
- GENERATES CONSIDERABLE HEAT WHEN ... SOLN IS MIXED WITH ACID.
CRUDE HYDROQUINONE WAS PUMPED INTO SODIUM HYDROXIDE STORAGE TANK BY MISTAKE. THE HYDROQUINONE LIQUOR AT 85 DEG C DECOMP RAPIDLY IN THE PRESENCE OF THE SODIUM HYDROXIDE RESULTING IN OVERFLOW OF TANK & EVOLUTION OF CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF HEAT.
Much heat is evolved when the solid material is dissolved in water. Therefore, cold water and caution must be used for this process.
Caustic solutions generate heat when further diluted with water. With concentrations of 40% or greater, the heat generated can raise the temperature above the boiling point, resulting in sporadic, dangerous eruptions of the solution.
With aluminum, arsenic trioxide, sodium, and arsenate: An aluminum ladder was used (instead of the usual wooden one) to gain access to a tank containing the alkaline arsenical mixture. Hydrogen produced by alkaline reaction on the ladder generated arsine, which poisoned the three workers involved.
With bromine: A bucket containing 25% sodium hydroxide solution was used to catch and neutralize bromine dripping from a leak. Lack of stirring allowed a layer of unreacted bromine to form below the alkali. Many hours later, a violent eruption occurred when the layers were disturbed during disposal operations. Continuous stirring is essential to prevent stratification of slowly reacting, mutually insoluble, liquids.
With octanol and diborane: Addition of sodium hydroxide solution during work-up of a reaction mixture of oxime and diborane in tetrahydrofuran is very exothermic, a mild explosion being noted on one occasion.
/Sodium hydroxide/ with 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol, sodium carbonate, and methanol: Failure to agitate a large-scale mixture of the reagents caused an eruption due to exothermic action when mixing occurred.
With zinc: Accidental contamination of a metal scoop with flake sodium hydroxide, prior to its use with zinc dust, caused ignition of the latter. A stiff paste prepared from zinc dust and 10% sodium hydroxide solution attains a temperature above 100 deg C after exposure to air for 15 min.
With zinc and 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol: In preparation of 2,2-dimethoxyazoxybenzene, solvent ethanol was distilled out of the mixture of o-nitroanisole, zinc and sodium hydroxide, before reaction was complete. The exothermic reaction continued unmoderated, and finally exploded.
With 2,2,2-trichloroethanol: Accidental contact of 50% sodium hydroxide solution with residual trichloroethanol in a pump caused an explosion. This was confirmed in laboratory experiments. Chlorohydroxyacetylene, the isomeric chloroketene or chlorooxirene, may have been formed by elimination of hydrogen chloride.
Water; acids; flammable liquids; organic halogens; metals such as aluminum, tin, & zinc; nitromethane [Note: Corrosive to metals].
Reacts to form explosive products with ammonia + silver nitrate (forms silver nitride); N,N'-bis(trinitroethyl)urea (in storage) ...
Under the proper conditions of temperature, pressure, and state of division, it can ignite or react violently with ... acetaldehyde, ... allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, ... benzene-1,4-diol, chlorine trifluoride, ... 1,2-dichloroethylene, ... nitroethane, nitromethane, nitroparaffins, nitropropane, ... cinnamaldehyde, ... 2,2-dichloro-3,3-dimethylbutane, ... Reacts with formaldehyde hydroxide to yield formic acid and hydrogen.
Sodium hydroxide in contact with water may generate enough heat to ignite adjacent combustible materials.
PHOSPHORUS BOILED WITH ALKALINE HYDROXIDES YIELDS MIXED PHOSPHINES WHICH MAY IGNITE SPONTANEOUSLY IN AIR.
MIXING SODIUM HYDROXIDE WITH GLACIAL ACETIC ACID, ACETIC ANHYDRIDE, ACROLEIN, CHLOROHYDRIN, CHLOROSULFONIC ACID, ETHYLENE CYANOHYDRIN, GLYOXAL, 36% HYDROCHLORIC ACID, 48.7% HYDROFLUORIC ACID, 70% NITRIC ACID, OLEUM, PROPIOLACTONE (BETA-) OR 96% SULFURIC ACID IN CLOSED CONTAINER CAUSED TEMP & PRESSURE TO INCR.
EXTREMELY VIOLENT POLYMERIZATION REACTION OF ACROLEIN OR ACRYLONITRILE RESULTS FROM CONTACT WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE. INADVERTENT CONTAMINATION OF MIXED CHLORONITROTOLUENES BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE IN FEED LINE CAUSED EXOTHERMIC REACTION WITH RUNAWAY PRESSURE BUILD-UP AND EVENTUAL EXPLOSION OF PROCESSING APPARATUS.
PRESENCE OF RESIDUE OF WEAK SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION IN A PRESSURE VESSEL CAUSED MALEIC ANHYDRIDE TO DECOMPOSE IN RUNAWAY EXPLOSIVE REACTION. PENTOL, BEING FRACTIONATED UNDER HIGH VACUUM, WAS ACCIDENTALLY CONTACTED BY CAUSTIC CLEANING SOLUTION AND VIOLENT EXPLOSION RESULTED.
IN MFR OF SODIUM SALT OF TRICHLOROPHENOL, SODIUM HYDROXIDE, METHYL ALCOHOL AND TETRACHLOROBENZENE WERE HEATED. DURING PROCESS, PRESSURE SUDDENLY INCR RAPIDLY & EXPLOSION OCCURRED. WHEN HEATED, TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE FORM EXPLOSIVE MIXTURES OF DICHLOROACETYLENE.
AS BENZENE EXTRACT OF ALLYL BENZENESULFONATE PREPARED FROM ALLYL ALCOHOL AND BENZENE SULFONYL CHLORIDE IN PRESENCE OF AQUEOUS SODIUM HYDROXIDE UNDER VACUUM DISTILLATION, RESIDUE DARKENED & EXPLODED. SODIUM HYDROXIDE REACTS WITH PHOSPHORUS PENTOXIDE EXTREMELY VIOLENTLY WHEN INITIATED BY LOCAL HEATING.
USING SODIUM HYDROXIDE TO DRY IMPURE TETRAHYDROFURAN, WHICH CAN CONTAIN PEROXIDES, IS HAZARDOUS. SERIOUS EXPLOSIONS CAN OCCUR.
700 KG OF 4-CHLORO-2-METHYLPHENOL, LEFT IN CONTACT WITH CONCN SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLN FOR 3 DAYS, DECOMPOSED, REACHING RED HEAT AND EVOLVING FUMES WHICH IGNITED EXPLOSIVELY. PRESENCE OF TRACES OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE PROBABLY CAUSED FORMATION OF ACETYLENIC SODIUM SALT OF 3-METHYL-2-PENTEN-4-YN-1-OL WHICH EXPLODED IN METAL STILL.
HEATING MIXT OF NITROBENZENE, FLAKE SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND A LITTLE WATER IN AUTOCLAVE LED TO EXPLOSION. VIOLENT EXPLOSION OCCURRED DURING ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS OF TETRACHLOROBENZENE IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL @ ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, WHICH WAS REGARDED AS SAFE PROCESS.
DURING DESTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AMMUNITION, PIERCED SHELLS CONTAINING CHLOROPICRIN REACTED VIOLENTLY WITH ALCOHOLIC SODIUM HYDROXIDE. ACCIDENTAL CONTACT OF 50% SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLN WITH RESIDUAL TRICHLOROETHANOL IN PUMP CAUSED AN EXPLOSION.
CHLOROFORM-METHANOL MIXTURE WAS PUT INTO DRUM CONTAMINATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE. VIGOROUS REACTION COMMENCED, AND DRUM EXPLODED. ADDN OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLN DURING WORK-UP OF REACTION MIXTURE OF OXIME & DIBORANE IN TETRAHYDROFURAN IS VERY EXOTHERMIC, A MILD EXPLOSION BEING NOTED ON ONE OCCASION.
DRY MIXTURES OF SODIUM TETRAHYDROBORATE WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONTAINING 15-40% OF TETRAHYDROBORATE LIBERATE HYDROGEN EXPLOSIVELY AT 230-270 DEG C. EXPLOSIVE REACTIONS OCCUR WHEN ZIRCONIUM IS COMBINED WITH ALKALI METAL HYDROXIDES.
INTERACTION OF CYANOGEN AZIDE WITH 10% ALKALI FORMS SODIUM 5-AZIDOTETRAZOLIDE, WHICH EXPLODES VIOLENTLY IF ISOLATED.
In sodium hydroxide's reaction with amphoteric metals, hydrogen gas is generated which may form an explosive mixture.
With 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene: Several serious incidents have been reported about the commercial preparation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by alkaline hydrolysis of methanolic alkali at 125 deg C, reaction went out of control. In one incident the temperature reached 400 deg C after hydrolysis in ethylene glycol solution, the residue from vacuum stripping exploded, probably owing to overheating. In 1968, a violent explosion occurred during hydrolysis in ethylene glycol at atmosphere pressure, which had been regarded as a safe process.
RAGS SOAKED IN SODIUM HYDROXIDE & CINNAMALDEHYDE OVERHEATED AND IGNITED WHEN THEY CAME INTO CONTACT IN WASTE BIN. ACCIDENTAL CONTAMINATION OF METAL SCOOP WITH FLAKE SODIUM HYDROXIDE CAUSED IGNITION OF ZINC.
- Other Preventative Measures:
- Nickel is the preferred metal for handling caustic soda at all concentrations and temperatures. However, the high cost and limited availability of nickel precludes its use for most applications. Mild steel is adequate for almost all caustic-handling applications. Plastics and plastic-lined steel are now available as construction materials. Fiberglass reinforced plastic tanks of Derakane vinyl ester resin are suitable for many applications. Polypropane is commonly used for lining pipe for protection against mechanical damage.
Any dilutions of caustic from concentrations greater than 25% should be done cautiously.
Do not handle broken packages without protective equipment.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
Local ventilation should be provided to reduce exposure levels to acceptable levels.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
- Protective Equipment and Clothing:
- Hazards from spills and leaks should be minimized by an adequate supply of water for washing-down. ... Adequate ventilation should be provided in areas where caustic ... soda mist or dust is present. ... For the protection of the eyes, safety goggles should be worn, as well as face shields, if complete face protection is necessary. Eyewash fountains and safety showers must be available at any location where eye and/or skin contact can occur. Protection against mist or dust of this compound can be provided by filter or dust-type respiratory protective equipment. ... Safety shoes ... are recommended.
Respirator selection: 100 mg/cu m: a) High-efficiency particulate respirator with a full facepiece, b) Supplied air respirator with a full facepiece, helmet, or hood. , c) Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. 200 mg/cu m: a) Powered air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency filter with a full facepiece, or b) Type C SA with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode or with a full facepiece, helmet, or hood operated in continuous- flow mode. . Escape: a) Dust and mist respirator, except single-use respirators with full facepiece, or b) Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece.
Sodium hydroxide: Chemical protective clothing composed of natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, or styrene/butadiene (SBR)-coated fabric is highly recommended, having break through times greater than one hour. Butyl rubber, neoprene and SBR, polyethylene, chlorinated polyurethane, or polyvinyl alcohol may be used but data suggests break through times of approximately an hour or more.
Sodium hydroxide, 30-70%: Chemical protective clothing composed of natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is highly recommended, having break through times greater than one hour. Butyl rubber, nitrile/PVC, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, or styrene/butadiene coated approximately an hour or more. Some data for polyvinyl alcohol (usually from immersion tests) suggest break through times greater than one hour are not likely.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 10 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. Eye protection needed. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a dust and mist filter. Eye protection needed. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
- ?Sodium hydroxide (CAS NO.1310-73-2), also called ?lye and caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base when dissolved in a solvent such as water. It forms a strong alkaline solution, however, only the hydroxide ion is basic. It?should be stored in an airtight container, because it is hygroscopic and readily absorbs carbon dioxide from the air.
- Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:
- SRP4: Too low to be measured (or possibly virtually 0)
- Disposal Methods:
- SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
Following neutralization either at the spill site or at a waste management facility, the resultant sludge can be disposed of in a secure landfill.
Put into large vessel containing water. Neutralize with HCL /hydrochloric acid/. Discharge into the sewer with sufficient water. Recommendable methods: Neutralization & discharge to sewer. Peer review: Dilute greatly (
Use and Manufacturing
- Use and Manufacturing:
- Methods of Manufacturing
By reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate; from sodium chloride by electrolysis; from sodium metal & water vapor @ low temp.
Sodium hydroxide is produced industrially mainly by the electrolysis of sodium chloride which yields sodium hydroxide solution, chlorine, and hydrogen in the mass ratios 1:0.88:0.025. In the early 1980s, the membrane process was introduced, the other processes in operation at the time being the amalgam and diaphram processes.
Causticization of sodium carbonate: A hot, ca. 12% solution of sodium carbonate is mixed with quicklime (CaO). The calcium carbonate that precipitates out is removed and the ca. 12% solution of sodium hydroxide is evaporated in several stages.
Ferrite Recovery process (mainly used in small paper pulp plants): Waste liquor containing sodium salt and organic substances is evaporated, and the residue mixed with Fe2O3 and calcined. The sodium ferrite formed is decomposed by water to give sodium hydroxide and Fe2O3.
Solid sodium hydroxide (Caustic soda) is obtained by evaporating sodium hydroxide solution until the water content isU.S. Exports
(1972) 1.1X10+12 GRAMS
(1975) 1.00X10+12 GRAMS
(1984) 1.14X10+12 g
1996: 2 million tons.U.S. Imports
(1972) 9.53X10+10 GRAMS
(1975) 9.8X10+10 GRAMS
(1984) 4.78X10+11 g
1996: 540,000 tonsU.S. Production
(1972) 9.27X10+12 GRAMS
(1975) 8.7X10+12 GRAMS
(1985) 9.24X10+12 g
(1990) 24.06 billion lb
(1991) 23.43 billion lb
(1992) 24.50 billion lb
(1993) 25.71 billion lb
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Caustic soda. Demand: 1988: 12.3 million tons (33,700 tons per day); 1989: 12.5 million tons (34,250 tons per day); 1993 /projected/: 13.4 million tons (36,700 tons per day). (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 858,000 tons last year.)
Annual production capacity estimate as of 4/1/97: 14.3 million short tons.
Demand: (1996) 13.9 million tons; (1997) 14.2 million tons (figures are for liquid material and include amounts dried, Includes exports, which amounted to 2 million short tons in 1996, but not imports, which were 540,000 tons).Consumption Patterns
51% IS CONSUMED IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND METAL PROCESSING OTHER THAN ALUMINUM; 6% FOR ALUMINUM PROCESSING; 18% IS USED IN PAPER AND PULP MANUFACTURE; 13% IS USED IN THE PETROLEUM, TEXTILE, SOAP, AND FOOD INDUSTRIES; 4% IS USED IN RAYON AND CELLOPHANE PRODUCTION; 8% IS USED IN OTHER APPLICATIONS (1974).
Organic Chemicals, 30%; Inorganic Chemicals, 20%; Pulp & Paper, 20%; Exports, 10%; Soaps and Detergents, 5%; Petroleum, 5%; Textiles, 4%; Alumina, 3%; Other, 3% (1986).
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Caustic soda. Pulp and paper, 22%; organic chemicals, 20%; inorganic chemicals, 11%; soaps and detergents, 7%; petroleum, 7%; water treatment, 7%; textiles, 5%; alumina, 4%; other, 9%; exports, 8%.
Direct application, 55% (pulp & paper, 24%; soaps and detergents, 10%; alumina, 6%; petroleum, 7%; textiles, 5%; water treatment, 5%; miscellaneous, 43%); organic chemicals 36% (propylene oxide, 23%; polycarbonates, 5%; ethyleneamines, 3%; epoxy resins, 3%; miscellaneous, 66%); inorganic chemicals, 9% (sodium/calcium hypochlorite, 24%; sulfur-containing compounds, 14%; sodium cyanide, 10%; miscellaneous 52%)
- Sampling Procedures:
- ANALYTE: SODIUM HYDROXIDE; MATRIX: AIR; PROCEDURE: FILTER COLLECTION, EXTRACTION WITH AQUEOUS ACID.
Workplace monitoring: Sampling and analysis may be performed by collection of sodium hydroxide in a glass bubble containing hydrochloric acid, followed by subsequent titration.
Detector tubes certified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 or other direct-reading devices calibrated to measure sodium hydroxide may be used.
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
- Pharmacological Action:
- - Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
- Therapeutic Uses:
- VET: DISINFECTANT
Vet: Dehorning of calves
MEDICATION (VET): Used to treat selenium deficient barley to induce vitamin E and selenium deficiency in yearling cattle /resulting in degenerative myopathy/. [Rice DA, McMurray CH; Vet Rec 118 (7): 173-6 (1986)]
- Biomedical Effects and Toxicity:
- ALKALIS PENETRATE SKIN SLOWLY.
Ammonium hydroxide penetrates fastest, followed by sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and finally calcium hydroxide.
Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential
- Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:
- Aquatic: In the case of a solid, anhydrous sodium hydroxide spill on soil, ground water pollution will occur if precipitation occurs prior to clean up. Precipitation will dissolve some of the solid (with much heat given off) and create an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, which then would be able to infiltrate the soil. However, prediction of the concn and properties of the solution produced would be difficult.
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